Difference between revisions of "Timvane (Cookstove DB)"

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= Overview<br> =
{{template:tabs|:Portal:Hydro|Portal Hydro|:Group:Hydro|Group Hydro|:Category:Hydro|All Hydro Articles
 
}}
 
<div class="portal_header">[[File:Icon-hydro.png|left|60px|alt=Icon-hydro.png|link=]]
 
== Steffturbine ==
 
  
Im Zusammenhang mit der Suche nach neuen Energieerzeugungsformen gewinnt die Nutzung von Wasserkraft an Bedeutung. Von besonderem Interesse sind Lösungen für die Anwendung im Kleinstbereich mit niedrigen Fallhöhen und geringen Durchflussmengen. Solche Kleinkraftwerke erlauben es, Wasserressourcen auch in kleinräumigem Gelände zu nutzen und in elektrische Energie umzuwandeln.
+
&#123;| style="float: right" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="400" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" colspan="4" | '''People's Democratic Republic of Algeria'''
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; [[Image:Flag of Algeria.png|border|center|150x100px|Flag of Algeria.png]]<br>
 +
| &nbsp; [[Image:Location Algeria.png|center|100x100px|Location Algeria.png]]<br>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Capital<br>
  
<br/>
+
|
 +
Algiers ([http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Algeria&params=36_42_N_3_13_E_type:country 36°42′N 3°13′E])
  
==== Technisches Konzept ====
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Official language(s)<br>
  
Aus diesem Bedürfnis heraus ist die Steffturbine entstanden. Die Kleinturbine beruht auf dem Prinzip des oberschlächtigen Wasserrads und nutzt im Wesentlichen die potenzielle Energie von Wasser. Ihre hauptsächlichen Komponenten sind ein doppelter, über zwei Umlenkräder geführter Kettenrundlauf sowie aus Edelstahl gefertigte Schaufeln (Abb. 1). Ein integrierter Permanent-Magnet-Generator wandelt die mechanische in elektrische Leistung mit Wechselstromerzeugung um.
+
|
 +
Arabic<br>
  
Die Steffturbine ist modular konzipiert. Sie kann in ihrer Länge variiert und an die topografischen Gegebenheiten angepasst werden. Sofern es das Gelände zulässt, ist es möglich, für das Erreichen einer höheren Gesamtleistung mehrere Steffturbinen im Parallelbetrieb einzusetzen (Abb. 2).
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Government<br>
  
<br/>
+
|
 +
Semi-presidential republic<br>
  
[[File:Steffturb Komp E 200 Px.png|left|The components of the Steffturbine]]<br/>
+
|-
 +
|  
 +
President<br>
  
Abbildung 1: Komponenten der Steffturbine
+
|
 +
Abdelaziz Bouteflika<br>
  
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Prime Minister<br>
  
 +
|
 +
Ahmed Ouyahia<br>
  
[[File:Steffturbine Parallel 200 Px.png|left|The Steffturbine is based on a modular concept]]
+
|-
 +
|  
 +
Total area<br>
  
Abbildung 2: Steffturbine in Parallelschaltung
+
|
 +
2,381,741 km<sup>2</sup><br>
  
<br/>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Population<br>
  
==== Leistung und Wirkungsgrad ====
+
|
 +
35,423,000 (2010 estimate)
  
Ihre idealen Bedingungen findet die Steffturbine bei einer Fallhöhe des Wassers zwischen 3 und 5 Metern. Dabei bringt es die Kleinturbine auf eine Leistung von 12 kW. Der messtechnisch erfasste Wirkungsgrad erreicht nach dem heutigen technischen Stand ein Maximum von 92 Prozent (Abb 3).
+
|-
 +
|
 +
GDP (nominal)<br>
  
<br/>
+
|
 +
$158.969 billion<br>
  
Abbildung 3: Graf Wirkungsgrad in Abhängigkeit des Neigungswinkels und der Durchflussmenge
+
|-
 +
|
 +
GDP Per capita <br>
  
Abbildung 4: Steffturbine mit unterschiedlichem Neigungswinkel
+
|
 +
$4,478<br>
  
<br/>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Currency<br>
  
==== Einsatzgebiete ====
+
|
 +
Algerian dinar (DZD)<br>
  
Die kompakt gebaute Steffturbine ist vielseitig einsetzbar. Für die Energienutzung eignen sich Fliess- und Staugewässer, Kläranlagen, Bewässerungseinrichtungen, Auslaufkanäle bestehender Kraftwerke, das Prozesswasser in Industriebetrieben, Standorte alter Mühlen oder Staustufen die einer Revitalisierung bedürfen. Der Neigungswinkel der Steffturbine lässt sich dem jeweiligen Gelände anpassen. Im Extremfall ist die Energiegewinnung durch den horizontalen Wasserdurchfluss unter Nutzung der kinetischen Energie möglich (Abb 4).
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Time zone<br>
  
Die von der Steffturbine erzeugte Elektrizität kann in das öffentliche Netz eingespeist, im Rahmen einer Insellösung genutzt oder in Kombination mit anderen Energieerzeugern (Erdwärme, Sonne, Wind) in ein Verbundnetz eingebracht werden. Durch ihre Anpassungsfähigkeit ist der Einbau der Steffturbine ohne Eingriffe in bestehende Ökosysteme möglich.
+
|
 +
CET (UTC+01)<br>
  
<br/>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Calling code<br>
  
Abbildung 5: Steffturbine längenvariabel
+
|
 +
+213<br>
  
<br/>
+
|&#125;
  
==== Eine Schweizer Entwicklung ====
+
&#123;| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="350" align="left" border="0"
 +
|-
 +
| __TOC__
 +
|&#125;
 +
<div style="clear: both"></div><div class="draft"></div><div class="draft"></div>
 +
Algeria is located in North Africa and is bordering Tunisia and Libya in the east, Niger and Mali in the south, and Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco in the west. In the north, Algeria’s vast coast of over 1.200 km extends to the Mediterranean Sea. Being part of the Maghreb, Algeria is furthermore considered to be a part of the MENA-region. With its more than two million km2 of national territory, Algeria is by far the largest North African country. However, most of its national territory is being occupied by the Sahara, which thus explains the population of roughly 33 million people.<ref>Auswärtiges Amt (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Last Updated: October, 2010, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes_Uebersichtsseiten/Algerien_node.html</ref> This is also expressed in the arrangement of population density: 90% of the population is located in the north.<ref>Deutsche Außenhandelskammer (German Chamber of Foreign Trade - AHK), Last Updated: 2011, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://algerien.ahk.de/algerien/</ref> The mild Mediterranean climate coming from the coast is being replaced by a dry desert climate while moving south. The official language is Arabic, although French can be considered to be a common lingua franca, whereas in some areas Berber dialects can be common as well.<ref>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html</ref> Having a parliament that consists of a national assembly and a senate, Algeria is a republic with Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who has been reelected with 90.2% of votes in 2009,<ref>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html</ref> as its president since 1999.<ref>Auswärtiges Amt (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Last Updated: October, 2010, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes_Uebersichtsseiten/Algerien_node.html</ref> Ethnic groups are made up of a vast majority of Arab-Berber (99%). However, most Algerians identify themselves with their Berber heritage rather than their Arab one.<ref>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html</ref> The state religion is Sunni Muslim, likewise represented by a vast majority, while Christians and Jews make up less than 3% of the population.<ref>Auswärtiges Amt (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Last Updated: October, 2010, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes_Uebersichtsseiten/Algerien_node.html</ref> <br>Minerals that can be found in this region are amongst others oil, gas, iron, and lead.<ref>Deutsche Außenhandelskammer (German Chamber of Foreign Trade - AHK), Last Updated: 2011, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://algerien.ahk.de/algerien/</ref> Together with agricultural goods, they make up the majority of export goods. Furthermore, they are the reason, why Algeria is part in international economic conglomerates, such as the OPEC or the OAPIC. Algeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) has been constantly rising in the last couple of years, bringing it to the approximate amount of $160 billion in 2010. The GDP per capita is hence about $7.300.<ref>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html</ref> <br>Algeria has a number of transnational issues to deal with, including an international dispute with the Moroccan administration of Western Sahara and illegal schemes in form of smuggling, human trafficking and forced labor.<ref>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html</ref> <br>
  
Die Steffturbine ist eine Entwicklung der WRH Walter Reist Holding AG, in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität der Bundeswehr München. Die WRH Walter Reist Holding AG mit Sitz in Hinwil (Schweiz) ist ein international tätiges Unternehmen in Familienbesitz und auf die Entwicklung innovativer Förder- und Verarbeitungssysteme spezialisiert. Deren Anwendung bewährt sich unter anderem in der Druckindustrie, in der Nahrungsmittel- und Pharmabranche sowie im Automobilbau. Die Fördertechnik bildet ebenso die Grundlage der Steffturbine, welche die WRH Walter Reist Holding AG seit 2012 über die eigene weltweit aktive Vertriebsorganisation vermarktet.
+
&nbsp;
  
<br/>
+
= Energy situation  =
  
==== Projekte in Italien und Tanzania ====
+
== Energy Supply  ==
  
Erste Projekte mit der Steffturbine sind in Arbeit. Unter anderem ist in Nyangao, in der Region Lindi in Tanzania der Einsatz eines Kleinwasserkraftwerks geplant. Im Rahmen eines autarken Systems wird eine Steffturbine eine Schule und die umliegenden Häuser mit Elektrizität versorgen. Als Wasserkraft soll der Überlauf eines kleinen Stausees genutzt werden.
+
In 2008, Algeria has produced a total amount of 162,044 ktoe of energy, which is about 1,884,571 GWh. Its main energy source is crude oil (54.4%), followed by gas (45.5%). In comparison, the numbers concerning the renewable energies are much smaller and close to zero. Other energy sources, such as coal, nuclear power or heat are in fact zero, thus giving an impression that Algeria has quite a unilateral energy landscape. Published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the numbers below offer more detail to Algeria's energy production:
  
Die Realisierung eines weiteren Steffturbinenprojekts ist in der Region Parma (Italien) vorgesehen. Als Energiequelle dienen Bewässerungssysteme, die Flusswasser zu landwirtschaftlichen Anbaugebieten leiten. Die erzeugte Elektrizität soll in das öffentliche Verbrauchernetz eingespeist werden.
+
&#123;| cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="331" border="1"
 +
|+ '''Total Energy Production (2008)'''
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Energy Source
  
<br/>
+
! scope="col" |
 +
in ktoe
  
----
+
! scope="col" |
 +
in&nbsp;%
  
Weitergehende Informationen:
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Coal and&nbsp;Peat
  
[http://www.steffturbine.com www.steffturbine.com]
+
|
 +
0
  
[http://www.walter-reist-holding.com www.walter-reist-holding.com]
+
|
 +
0
  
<br/>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Crude Oil
  
Quellennachweis:
+
|
 +
88,187
  
[1] Malcherek A., Kulisch H., Maerker C.: Die Steffturbine – eine auf einem Umlaufband beruhende Kleinwasserkraftanlage. WasserWirtschaft 10 | 2011, Seiten 30–33.
+
|  
 +
54.4
  
<br/>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
Oil Products
  
[2] Maerker C., Trachsler M., Widmer F.: Ein Jahr Steffturbine in Rüti/Schweiz Erfahrungen aus dem laufenden Betrieb einer Pilotanlage in der Schweiz. Wassertriebwerk 12 | 2012, Seiten 232–237.
+
|
</div>
+
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Gas
 +
 
 +
|
 +
73,783
 +
 
 +
|
 +
45.5
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Nuclear
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Hydro
 +
 
 +
|
 +
24
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.02
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Geothermal, solar, etc.
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Combustible renewables and waste
 +
 
 +
|
 +
49
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.03
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Electricity
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Heat
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Total<sup>1</sup>
 +
 
 +
|
 +
162,044
 +
 
 +
|&#125;
 +
 
 +
Table 1:&nbsp;Total Energy Production of Algeria (2008)<br>'''Source:''' International Energy&nbsp;Agency,&nbsp;©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for&nbsp;Algeria", Last Updated: - , Accessed:&nbsp;September 19, 2011, URL:&nbsp;[http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ "&gt;http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ"&gt;http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
Taking Table 1 above into consideration, Table 2 ("Total Primary Energy Supply")&nbsp;offers quite a similar picture. It might yet seem suprising, that gas is now the main energy source with more than 60%, while oil only makes up 37% of the energy supply. This curiosity can be explained by the massive amount of crude oil (-55,002 ktoe) and oil products (-19,334 ktoe) Algeria is exporting and thus decreasing the amount of available oil.<ref>International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ</ref> Plenty of gas is being exported, as well&nbsp;(-51,259 ktoe).<ref>International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ</ref>
 +
 
 +
&#123;| style="width: 332px; height: 352px" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="332" border="1"
 +
|+ '''Total Primary Energy Supply (2008)'''
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Energy Source
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
in ktoe
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
in&nbsp;%
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Coal and Peat
 +
 
 +
|
 +
755
 +
 
 +
|
 +
2.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Oil
 +
 
 +
|
 +
13,721
 +
 
 +
|
 +
37.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Gas
 +
 
 +
|
 +
22,524
 +
 
 +
|
 +
60.8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Nuclear
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Hydro
 +
 
 +
|
 +
24
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.01
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Geothermal, solar, etc.
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Combustible renewables and waste
 +
 
 +
|
 +
49
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.1
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Electricity
 +
 
 +
|
 +
-4
 +
 
 +
|
 +
-0.1
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Heat
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Total<sup>1</sup>
 +
 
 +
|
 +
37,069
 +
 
 +
|
 +
|&#125;
 +
 
 +
Table 2:&nbsp;Total Primary Energy Supply of Algeria (2008)<br><sup>1</sup>Total may not add up due to roundings.
 +
 
 +
'''Source:''' International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: [http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ "&gt;http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ"&gt;http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp]? COUNTRY_CODE=DZ
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
 +
 
 +
=== Electricity  ===
 +
 
 +
In the course of the last decade, electricity production rose from 26,250 GWh in 2001 to a predicted increase to up to 46,000 GWh in 2010.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (MEM), Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/francais/index.php?page=perspectives-de-developpement</ref>&nbsp;It appears that this development is mainly due to the economic growth that Algeria has experienced along the way.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (MEM), Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/francais/index.php?page=perspectives-de-developpement</ref> As Table 3 shows below, main source for the production of electricity is gas with a relativ percentage to the total amount produced of over 97%. Although there are other minor sources of electricity, such as oil and hydro-power, a similar picture as seen in the tables above is being created, suggesting a rather one-sided production and supply (in this case)&nbsp;of electricity.
 +
 
 +
&#123;| style="width: 335px; height: 504px" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="335" border="1"
 +
|+ '''Electricity Production and Supply (2008)'''
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Energy Source
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
in&nbsp;GWh
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
in&nbsp;%<sup>2,3</sup>
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Coal
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Oil
 +
 
 +
|
 +
792
 +
 
 +
|
 +
2.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Gas
 +
 
 +
|
 +
39,161
 +
 
 +
|
 +
97.3
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Biomass
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Waste
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Nuclear
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Hydro
 +
 
 +
|
 +
283
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.7
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Geothermal
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Solar&nbsp;PV
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Solar thermal
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Wind
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Tide
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Other sources
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''''Total Production'''''
 +
 
 +
|
 +
'''''40,236'''''
 +
 
 +
|
 +
100.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Imports
 +
 
 +
|
 +
274
 +
 
 +
|
 +
0.7
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Exports
 +
 
 +
|
 +
-323
 +
 
 +
|
 +
-0.8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''''Domestic Supply'''''
 +
 
 +
|
 +
'''''40,187'''''
 +
 
 +
|
 +
99.9
 +
 
 +
|&#125;
 +
 
 +
<sup>Table 3:&nbsp;Electricity Production and Supply of Algeria (2008)</sup>
 +
 
 +
<sup>2</sup>In relation&nbsp;to the amount given by "Total Production"
 +
 
 +
<sup>3</sup>Total may not add up due to roundings and&nbsp;overlapping&nbsp;percentages.
 +
 
 +
'''Source:''' International Energy Agency, ©2011,&nbsp;"Electricity/Heat in&nbsp;Algeria 2008", Last updated:&nbsp;- , Accessed:&nbsp;September 20, 2011, URL: [http://www.iea.org/stats/electricitydata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ http://www.iea.org/stats/electricitydata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ]  
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Energy Consumption  ==
 +
 
 +
Compared to&nbsp;2008, Algeria has increased its energy consumption in 2009 by almost 5%.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2010), "Bilan Energetique National de l'année 2009", pg. 19.</ref> In 2008, Algeria's total final consumption (TFC) added up to 23,447 ktoe units, equal to 272,688.6 GWh.
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&#123;| cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="200" border="1"
 +
|+ '''TFC of Energy (2008)'''
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Sector
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Consumption in GWh
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
in&nbsp;%
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Industry
 +
 
 +
|
 +
51,381.3
 +
 
 +
|
 +
18,8
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Transport
 +
 
 +
|
 +
79,770.2
 +
 
 +
|
 +
29.3
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Residential
 +
 
 +
|
 +
117,323.4
 +
 
 +
|
 +
43.0
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
Non-energy use
 +
 
 +
|
 +
24,213.7
 +
 
 +
|
 +
8.9
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
TFC
 +
 
 +
|
 +
272,688.6
 +
 
 +
|
 +
100
 +
 
 +
|&#125;
 +
 
 +
Table 4:&nbsp;Algeria's TFC of Energy (2008)
 +
 
 +
'''Source:''' International Energy Agency, ©2011, "Electricity/Heat in Algeria 2008", Last updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: [http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ]
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
=== Energy demand&nbsp;&nbsp;  ===
 +
 
 +
Between 1963 and 2007 – not even half a century of development – Algeria chronicles an enormous rise in the demand of electricity. Whereas electricity consumption in the early 1960’s was less than a single TWh, it has risen to 30 TWh in 2007.<ref>Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 2017“, pg. 10</ref> However, the boom in consumption has been quite stable recently, slowly rising by about 5.6% per annum. The German Chamber of Foreign Commerce (AHK)&nbsp;predicts an annual rise in energy consumption&nbsp;between 5.5% and 7%, causing a doubling in the increase of production of the&nbsp;energy sector.<ref>German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1</ref>&nbsp;&nbsp;In view of these facts, the Algerian Ministry of Energy and Mining (MEM) has proposed two possible future scenarios. One prevision is a rather moderate one, projecting a steady but fair continuation of the current trend in the rise of energy demand, assuming that the economy is developing in a similar slow and controllable way.<ref>Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 10-11</ref> The second and rather drastic forecast reckons with a strong and lasting reanimation of the economy, thus challenging the task to meet future energy demands.<ref>Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 10-11</ref> Depending on the scenario, energy needs could bounce up between 7.8% and 9.1% until 2017.<ref>Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 11</ref> <br>
 +
 
 +
== Electricity grid  ==
 +
 
 +
According to the Wuppertal Institute for Climate,&nbsp;Environment and Energy, Algeria has an extensive AC&nbsp;network that spreads throughout the country with a total length of transmission network of about 18,000 km.<ref name="null">Wuppertal Institute of Climate, Environment and Energy (2010), "Algeria - A Future Supplier of Electricity from Renewable Energies for Europe?", pg. 27</ref>&nbsp;Run by Sonelgaz, Algeria's main energy operator, electricity makes up 71% of its business,<ref>Groupe Sonelgaz (2009), "Rapport d'Activite 2009 &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; comptes de gestion consolidés", pg. 26</ref> which is not only focused on the densely populated north but also makes efforts to reach down south.<ref>Wuppertal Institute of Climate, Environment and Energy (2010), "Algeria - A Future Supplier of Electricity from Renewable Energies for Europe?", pg. 27</ref>&nbsp;In the course of the planned and already partially implemented porject of the Mediterranean Ring (MED-RING), an international effort to interlink the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea with an electronic circuit, Algeria is one out of 22 countries that is being connected with neighbouring grids from Tunisia, Morocco and Spain.<ref>Wuppertal Institute of Climate, Environment and Energy (2010), "Algeria - A Future Supplier of Electricity from Renewable Energies for Europe?", pg. 27</ref><ref>Euro-Mediterranean Energy Market Ingeration Project, Last Update: September 08, 2011, Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.medemip.eu/WebPages/Common/showpage.aspx?pageid=184</ref>
 +
 
 +
== Access rate  ==
 +
 
 +
The International Energy Association (IEA) states that the average energy supply per individual (TPES/pop. =&nbsp;toe/capita) in 2008 was 1.08 toe, which was much less than the worlds average (1.83 toe).<ref name="null">International Energy Association (IEA) (2010), "Key World Energy Statistics 2010", pg. 51</ref>&nbsp;Another statistic that seems to reveal a similar deviance is the consumption of electricity per individual (kWh/capita), which is about 957 kWh&nbsp;(compared to the worlds average of 2,782 kWh).<ref>International Energy Association (IEA) (2010), "Key World Energy Statistics 2010", pg. 51</ref>&nbsp;The persumption is that these low numbers are not due to the reasonable energy use of Algeria's population, but due to the insufficient accessibility of electricity. An indiciation to support this hypothetical statement is the number of households considered to be clients of Sonelgaz: 6,525,999.<ref name="null">Groupe Sonelgaz (2009), "Rapport d'Activité &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; comptes des gestions consolidés 2009", pg. 29</ref>&nbsp;Considering the average african household size of 4.7 members,<ref>Baumann, H. (2007), "Changing household patterns create opportunities for construction, retail and finance", Last Updated: April, 2007, Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.euromonitor.com/changing-household-patterns-create-opportunities-for-construction-retail-and-finance/article</ref> this number mounts up to 30,672195.3 mio people - as opposed to the total population of about 34.5 million people.&nbsp;Following this logic, the&nbsp;concrete, explicit access rate would be around&nbsp;89%.&nbsp;Obviously, this is nothing but a rough and approximate estimation due a lack of official numbers. Nevertheless, it offers a first impression on how to evaluate Algeria's access rate. However, it shall not lead to hasty conclusions, for this phenomenon can be explained by a number of potential factors, such as the fact that in 2009 34% of Algeria's population was considered to be part of the rural population, implying much more rudimentary living standards as compared to the urban population.<ref>The World Bank (2011), "Rural population (% of total population)", Last Updated: 2011, Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS</ref>&nbsp; <span style="color: #ff0000">Having said that, the Algerian state and Sonelgaz are showing quite some effort to promote urbanisation. One statistic supporting this perception is the amount of almost 378,5 billion Algerian Dinars that was spent in 2009 in form of eight different projects that have dealt with rural electrification</span>.<ref name="null">Groupe Sonelgaz (2009), "Rapport d'Activité &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; comptes des gestions consolidés 2009", pg. 38</ref> Newer statistics indicate and display remarkable progress since then. According to Renewable Energy &amp;&nbsp;Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) over 98% of the population have used the service provided by the extensive network.<ref name="null">Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Access: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;cid=120</ref>&nbsp;Although the network has already undergone several exentensions recently, an extension of yet another 5% is planned for the upcoming years.<ref>Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Access: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;cid=120</ref>
 +
 
 +
Network access is generally controlled by CREG.&nbsp;The German Chamber of Foreign Commerce&nbsp;yet claims that this does not represent any sort of obstacle in terms of the connection of renewable energy power utilities to the grid.<ref>German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1</ref>
 +
 
 +
== Market situation for different energy technologies and services <br> ==
 +
 
 +
Although&nbsp;state-run&nbsp;gas and electricity&nbsp;company Sonelgaz&nbsp;considers energy prices to be far too cheap,&nbsp;prices are set by the &nbsp;likewise state-run regulatory commission CREG and thus add up 0.04583 €/kWh (4,1789 DZD/kWh).<ref>German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1</ref>&nbsp;Although the energy market has officially been liberalised, energy supply is still entirely regulated and controlled by the state (mainly in form of the just mentioned companies CREG and Sonelgaz), with the&nbsp;exception of a few&nbsp;private enterprises in which Sonelgaz is a major stakeholder.<ref>German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1</ref>&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Despite the insufficient but highly expendable use of renewable energy, the Ministry of Energy and Mining of Algeria has&nbsp;declared renewable energy as a main priority for Algeria&nbsp;its up-to-date informative literature dating March, 2011.<ref>Ministère d'Electricité et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Progam", pg. 4</ref>&nbsp;The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program includes the idea of installing up to 22,000 MW&nbsp;of power generating capacity from renewable resources until 2030.<ref>Ministère d'Electricité et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Progam", pg. 4</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Solar Energy  ===
 +
 
 +
Algeria comes with 20 solar villages, of which the majority is in action and is contributing to the overall production of&nbsp;energy.<ref>Ministère d 'Energie et des Mines, "Bilan général des réalisations", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/fr/enr/energie%20solaire/Bilan_generale.htm</ref>&nbsp;Solar energy is considered to be the most potential source of renewable energy, the most of which is being naturally collected in the Sahara region with 2,650 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/year.<ref>Ministry of Energy and Mines (2007), "Guidelines to Renewable Energies", pg. 13</ref>&nbsp; Nevertheless, solar energy makes up only a minimal amount of the total energy that is being produced in Algeria. The 35 TWh that energy production has reached by now is mainly based on the exploitation of natural gas.<ref>Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010), Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;amp;cid=120</ref>&nbsp;According to Renewable Energy &amp;&nbsp;Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), the amount of produced solar energy is about&nbsp;6.57 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>/day.<ref>Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010), Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;amp;cid=120</ref>
 +
 
 +
Future investments and promotion of solar energy accentuate two sub-technologies working with solar energy. On one hand the industrial integration of photovoltaic solar energy is supposed to be promoted to reach about 60% by 2013.<ref>Ministère d'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 18</ref> On the other hand, solar thermal energy is allegedly to experience an industrial integration of 50%&nbsp;by year 2020, starting with a series of studies concerning the manufacturing of the respective equipment between 2011 and 2013.<ref>Ministère d'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 19</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Wind Energy  ===
 +
 
 +
Past reports concerning the potential of energy gained by the exploitation of wind have been rated as very low.<ref>Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership, "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;amp;cid=120</ref> The 2011 report however promotes a rather different attitude by the Ministry of Energy and Mines. The so far quite underestimated and neglected sector of aeolian energy is&nbsp;therein identified as a field of future study (by 2013), in order to soon be able to implement wind energy industry.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 20-21</ref>&nbsp;The rather interesting approach is: instead of importing the respective technology to build energy prdoucing wind turbines, Algeria is planning to first develop a plant to produce said technology and then install their own wind generating products,<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 21</ref> thus probably&nbsp;increasing socio-economic impacts caused by the installation and usage of aelion energy generators.<br>
 +
 
 +
=== Biomass  ===
 +
 
 +
Similar to wind energy, the potential of energy extracted from&nbsp;biomass is&nbsp;relatively low, according to the&nbsp;Algerian Ministry of Energy and Mines.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 4</ref>&nbsp;Having said that, the Ministry does not neglect the chance of producing and using biomass energy. In fact, it plans to implement experimental projects to approach yet another source of&nbsp;renewable energy.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 4</ref> Nevertheless, further information on this topic appear to be rather vague. Responsible for developing and implementing these research projects is the Center for Renewable Energy Development&nbsp;(CDER).<br>The REEEP&nbsp;estimates the potential of Biomass to be about 37,000 ktoe that can be gained by forest reserves.<ref name="null">Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;cid=120</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Biogas  ===
 +
 
 +
Biogas, considered to be a sub-category of biomass, is just like the biomass itself in quite limited use in&nbsp;Algeria. Although no official figures can confirm an extended use of biogas, REEEP&nbsp;asserts that in 2010, Algeria had "roughly 1,1330 ktoe of agricultural and municipal residues"&nbsp;available.<ref>Renewable Energy &amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;special=viewitem&amp;cid=120</ref>
 +
 
 +
=== Hydro Power  ===
 +
 
 +
Hydro Power represents yet another source of renewable energy that is considered to be rather less profitable. Although flows are estimated to be about 65 billion m<sup>3</sup>, limited precipitation and high evaporation constrict extensive usage of the ressource of water.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines, "Potential", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/english/index.php?page=potentiels</ref>&nbsp;Recent evaluations showed that only 25 billion m<sup>3</sup> can be used effectively.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines, "Potential", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/english/index.php?page=potentiels</ref> Despite these facts, Algeria still comes with more than 100 dams and some dozens more that are already projected.<ref>Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines, "Potential", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/english/index.php?page=potentiels</ref>&nbsp;Although these numbers are not the most current ones, they do show however that Algeria is making use of very different sources of renewable energy.
 +
 
 +
=== Other renewable Sources  ===
 +
 
 +
Type your text here
 +
 
 +
== Key problems of the energy sector  ==
 +
 
 +
Type your text here
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== Policy framework, laws and regulations  ==
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 +
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=== General Energy policy, Energy strategy  ===
 +
 
 +
Type your text here
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=== Important Laws and regulations  ===
 +
 
 +
Type your text here
 +
 
 +
=== Specific strategies (Biomass, renewable energies, rural electrification, energy access strategy etc.)  ===
 +
 
 +
Type your text here
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 +
== Institutional set up in the energy sector  ==
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 +
Type your text here
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=== Governmental institutions Private sector (enterprises, NGOs)  ===
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 +
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=== Activities of other donors, activities of NGOs  ===
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Type your text here
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 +
= Existing projects  =
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Type your text here<br>
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 +
= Further Reading<br> =
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Type your text here<br>
 +
 
 +
= External links<br> =
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.el-mouradia.dz/ Official website]<br>
 +
*[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html Algeria entry at The World Factbook]<br>
 +
 
 +
= Reference list  =
 +
 
 +
<references /><br><br>
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Algeria]]
 
{{Malawi cookstoves DB
 
{{Malawi cookstoves DB
 
|CS id=42712
 
|CS id=42712

Revision as of 09:27, 5 July 2016

Overview

{| style="float: right" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="400" border="1" |- | align="center" colspan="4" | People's Democratic Republic of Algeria |-

|  

Flag of Algeria.png


|  

Location Algeria.png


|- | Capital

| Algiers (36°42′N 3°13′E)

|- | Official language(s)

| Arabic

|- | Government

| Semi-presidential republic

|- | President

| Abdelaziz Bouteflika

|- | Prime Minister

| Ahmed Ouyahia

|- | Total area

| 2,381,741 km2

|- | Population

| 35,423,000 (2010 estimate)

|- | GDP (nominal)

| $158.969 billion

|- | GDP Per capita

| $4,478

|- | Currency

| Algerian dinar (DZD)

|- | Time zone

| CET (UTC+01)

|- | Calling code

| +213

|}

{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="350" align="left" border="0" |-

|

|}

Algeria is located in North Africa and is bordering Tunisia and Libya in the east, Niger and Mali in the south, and Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco in the west. In the north, Algeria’s vast coast of over 1.200 km extends to the Mediterranean Sea. Being part of the Maghreb, Algeria is furthermore considered to be a part of the MENA-region. With its more than two million km2 of national territory, Algeria is by far the largest North African country. However, most of its national territory is being occupied by the Sahara, which thus explains the population of roughly 33 million people.[1] This is also expressed in the arrangement of population density: 90% of the population is located in the north.[2] The mild Mediterranean climate coming from the coast is being replaced by a dry desert climate while moving south. The official language is Arabic, although French can be considered to be a common lingua franca, whereas in some areas Berber dialects can be common as well.[3] Having a parliament that consists of a national assembly and a senate, Algeria is a republic with Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who has been reelected with 90.2% of votes in 2009,[4] as its president since 1999.[5] Ethnic groups are made up of a vast majority of Arab-Berber (99%). However, most Algerians identify themselves with their Berber heritage rather than their Arab one.[6] The state religion is Sunni Muslim, likewise represented by a vast majority, while Christians and Jews make up less than 3% of the population.[7]
Minerals that can be found in this region are amongst others oil, gas, iron, and lead.[8] Together with agricultural goods, they make up the majority of export goods. Furthermore, they are the reason, why Algeria is part in international economic conglomerates, such as the OPEC or the OAPIC. Algeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) has been constantly rising in the last couple of years, bringing it to the approximate amount of $160 billion in 2010. The GDP per capita is hence about $7.300.[9]
Algeria has a number of transnational issues to deal with, including an international dispute with the Moroccan administration of Western Sahara and illegal schemes in form of smuggling, human trafficking and forced labor.[10]

 

Energy situation

Energy Supply

In 2008, Algeria has produced a total amount of 162,044 ktoe of energy, which is about 1,884,571 GWh. Its main energy source is crude oil (54.4%), followed by gas (45.5%). In comparison, the numbers concerning the renewable energies are much smaller and close to zero. Other energy sources, such as coal, nuclear power or heat are in fact zero, thus giving an impression that Algeria has quite a unilateral energy landscape. Published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the numbers below offer more detail to Algeria's energy production:

{| cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="331" border="1" |+ Total Energy Production (2008) |- ! scope="col" | Energy Source

! scope="col" | in ktoe

! scope="col" | in %

|- | Coal and Peat

| 0

| 0

|- | Crude Oil

| 88,187

| 54.4

|- | Oil Products

| 0

| 0

|- | Gas

| 73,783

| 45.5

|- | Nuclear

| 0

| 0

|- | Hydro

| 24

| 0.02

|- | Geothermal, solar, etc.

| 0

| 0

|- | Combustible renewables and waste

| 49

| 0.03

|- | Electricity

| 0

| 0

|- | Heat

| 0

| 0

|- | Total1

| 162,044

|}

Table 1: Total Energy Production of Algeria (2008)
Source: International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: ">http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ">http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ   


Taking Table 1 above into consideration, Table 2 ("Total Primary Energy Supply") offers quite a similar picture. It might yet seem suprising, that gas is now the main energy source with more than 60%, while oil only makes up 37% of the energy supply. This curiosity can be explained by the massive amount of crude oil (-55,002 ktoe) and oil products (-19,334 ktoe) Algeria is exporting and thus decreasing the amount of available oil.[11] Plenty of gas is being exported, as well (-51,259 ktoe).[12]

{| style="width: 332px; height: 352px" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="332" border="1" |+ Total Primary Energy Supply (2008) |- ! scope="col" | Energy Source

! scope="col" | in ktoe

! scope="col" | in %

|- | Coal and Peat

| 755

| 2.0

|- | Oil

| 13,721

| 37.0

|- | Gas

| 22,524

| 60.8

|- | Nuclear

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Hydro

| 24

| 0.01

|- | Geothermal, solar, etc.

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Combustible renewables and waste

| 49

| 0.1

|- | Electricity

| -4

| -0.1

|- | Heat

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Total1

| 37,069

| |}

Table 2: Total Primary Energy Supply of Algeria (2008)
1Total may not add up due to roundings.

Source: International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: ">http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ">http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp? COUNTRY_CODE=DZ

  

Electricity

In the course of the last decade, electricity production rose from 26,250 GWh in 2001 to a predicted increase to up to 46,000 GWh in 2010.[13] It appears that this development is mainly due to the economic growth that Algeria has experienced along the way.[14] As Table 3 shows below, main source for the production of electricity is gas with a relativ percentage to the total amount produced of over 97%. Although there are other minor sources of electricity, such as oil and hydro-power, a similar picture as seen in the tables above is being created, suggesting a rather one-sided production and supply (in this case) of electricity.

{| style="width: 335px; height: 504px" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="335" border="1" |+ Electricity Production and Supply (2008) |- ! scope="col" | Energy Source

! scope="col" | in GWh

! scope="col" | in %2,3

|- | Coal

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Oil

| 792

| 2.0

|- | Gas

| 39,161

| 97.3

|- | Biomass

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Waste

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Nuclear

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Hydro

| 283

| 0.7

|- | Geothermal

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Solar PV

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Solar thermal

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Wind

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Tide

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Other sources

| 0

| 0.0

|- | Total Production

| 40,236

| 100.0

|- | Imports

| 274

| 0.7

|- | Exports

| -323

| -0.8

|- | Domestic Supply

| 40,187

| 99.9

|}

Table 3: Electricity Production and Supply of Algeria (2008)

2In relation to the amount given by "Total Production"

3Total may not add up due to roundings and overlapping percentages.

Source: International Energy Agency, ©2011, "Electricity/Heat in Algeria 2008", Last updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.iea.org/stats/electricitydata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ

 

Energy Consumption

Compared to 2008, Algeria has increased its energy consumption in 2009 by almost 5%.[15] In 2008, Algeria's total final consumption (TFC) added up to 23,447 ktoe units, equal to 272,688.6 GWh.

 

{| cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" width="200" border="1" |+ TFC of Energy (2008) |- ! scope="col" | Sector

! scope="col" | Consumption in GWh

! scope="col" | in %

|- | Industry

| 51,381.3

| 18,8

|- | Transport

| 79,770.2

| 29.3

|- | Residential

| 117,323.4

| 43.0

|- | Non-energy use

| 24,213.7

| 8.9

|- | TFC

| 272,688.6

| 100

|}

Table 4: Algeria's TFC of Energy (2008)

Source: International Energy Agency, ©2011, "Electricity/Heat in Algeria 2008", Last updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ


Energy demand  

Between 1963 and 2007 – not even half a century of development – Algeria chronicles an enormous rise in the demand of electricity. Whereas electricity consumption in the early 1960’s was less than a single TWh, it has risen to 30 TWh in 2007.[16] However, the boom in consumption has been quite stable recently, slowly rising by about 5.6% per annum. The German Chamber of Foreign Commerce (AHK) predicts an annual rise in energy consumption between 5.5% and 7%, causing a doubling in the increase of production of the energy sector.[17]  In view of these facts, the Algerian Ministry of Energy and Mining (MEM) has proposed two possible future scenarios. One prevision is a rather moderate one, projecting a steady but fair continuation of the current trend in the rise of energy demand, assuming that the economy is developing in a similar slow and controllable way.[18] The second and rather drastic forecast reckons with a strong and lasting reanimation of the economy, thus challenging the task to meet future energy demands.[19] Depending on the scenario, energy needs could bounce up between 7.8% and 9.1% until 2017.[20]

Electricity grid

According to the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Algeria has an extensive AC network that spreads throughout the country with a total length of transmission network of about 18,000 km.[21] Run by Sonelgaz, Algeria's main energy operator, electricity makes up 71% of its business,[22] which is not only focused on the densely populated north but also makes efforts to reach down south.[23] In the course of the planned and already partially implemented porject of the Mediterranean Ring (MED-RING), an international effort to interlink the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea with an electronic circuit, Algeria is one out of 22 countries that is being connected with neighbouring grids from Tunisia, Morocco and Spain.[24][25]

Access rate

The International Energy Association (IEA) states that the average energy supply per individual (TPES/pop. = toe/capita) in 2008 was 1.08 toe, which was much less than the worlds average (1.83 toe).[21] Another statistic that seems to reveal a similar deviance is the consumption of electricity per individual (kWh/capita), which is about 957 kWh (compared to the worlds average of 2,782 kWh).[26] The persumption is that these low numbers are not due to the reasonable energy use of Algeria's population, but due to the insufficient accessibility of electricity. An indiciation to support this hypothetical statement is the number of households considered to be clients of Sonelgaz: 6,525,999.[21] Considering the average african household size of 4.7 members,[27] this number mounts up to 30,672195.3 mio people - as opposed to the total population of about 34.5 million people. Following this logic, the concrete, explicit access rate would be around 89%. Obviously, this is nothing but a rough and approximate estimation due a lack of official numbers. Nevertheless, it offers a first impression on how to evaluate Algeria's access rate. However, it shall not lead to hasty conclusions, for this phenomenon can be explained by a number of potential factors, such as the fact that in 2009 34% of Algeria's population was considered to be part of the rural population, implying much more rudimentary living standards as compared to the urban population.[28]  Having said that, the Algerian state and Sonelgaz are showing quite some effort to promote urbanisation. One statistic supporting this perception is the amount of almost 378,5 billion Algerian Dinars that was spent in 2009 in form of eight different projects that have dealt with rural electrification.[21] Newer statistics indicate and display remarkable progress since then. According to Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) over 98% of the population have used the service provided by the extensive network.[21] Although the network has already undergone several exentensions recently, an extension of yet another 5% is planned for the upcoming years.[29]

Network access is generally controlled by CREG. The German Chamber of Foreign Commerce yet claims that this does not represent any sort of obstacle in terms of the connection of renewable energy power utilities to the grid.[30]

Market situation for different energy technologies and services

Although state-run gas and electricity company Sonelgaz considers energy prices to be far too cheap, prices are set by the  likewise state-run regulatory commission CREG and thus add up 0.04583 €/kWh (4,1789 DZD/kWh).[31] Although the energy market has officially been liberalised, energy supply is still entirely regulated and controlled by the state (mainly in form of the just mentioned companies CREG and Sonelgaz), with the exception of a few private enterprises in which Sonelgaz is a major stakeholder.[32] 

Despite the insufficient but highly expendable use of renewable energy, the Ministry of Energy and Mining of Algeria has declared renewable energy as a main priority for Algeria its up-to-date informative literature dating March, 2011.[33] The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program includes the idea of installing up to 22,000 MW of power generating capacity from renewable resources until 2030.[34]

Solar Energy

Algeria comes with 20 solar villages, of which the majority is in action and is contributing to the overall production of energy.[35] Solar energy is considered to be the most potential source of renewable energy, the most of which is being naturally collected in the Sahara region with 2,650 kWh/m2/year.[36]  Nevertheless, solar energy makes up only a minimal amount of the total energy that is being produced in Algeria. The 35 TWh that energy production has reached by now is mainly based on the exploitation of natural gas.[37] According to Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), the amount of produced solar energy is about 6.57 kWh/m2/day.[38]

Future investments and promotion of solar energy accentuate two sub-technologies working with solar energy. On one hand the industrial integration of photovoltaic solar energy is supposed to be promoted to reach about 60% by 2013.[39] On the other hand, solar thermal energy is allegedly to experience an industrial integration of 50% by year 2020, starting with a series of studies concerning the manufacturing of the respective equipment between 2011 and 2013.[40]

Wind Energy

Past reports concerning the potential of energy gained by the exploitation of wind have been rated as very low.[41] The 2011 report however promotes a rather different attitude by the Ministry of Energy and Mines. The so far quite underestimated and neglected sector of aeolian energy is therein identified as a field of future study (by 2013), in order to soon be able to implement wind energy industry.[42] The rather interesting approach is: instead of importing the respective technology to build energy prdoucing wind turbines, Algeria is planning to first develop a plant to produce said technology and then install their own wind generating products,[43] thus probably increasing socio-economic impacts caused by the installation and usage of aelion energy generators.

Biomass

Similar to wind energy, the potential of energy extracted from biomass is relatively low, according to the Algerian Ministry of Energy and Mines.[44] Having said that, the Ministry does not neglect the chance of producing and using biomass energy. In fact, it plans to implement experimental projects to approach yet another source of renewable energy.[45] Nevertheless, further information on this topic appear to be rather vague. Responsible for developing and implementing these research projects is the Center for Renewable Energy Development (CDER).
The REEEP estimates the potential of Biomass to be about 37,000 ktoe that can be gained by forest reserves.[21]

Biogas

Biogas, considered to be a sub-category of biomass, is just like the biomass itself in quite limited use in Algeria. Although no official figures can confirm an extended use of biogas, REEEP asserts that in 2010, Algeria had "roughly 1,1330 ktoe of agricultural and municipal residues" available.[46]

Hydro Power

Hydro Power represents yet another source of renewable energy that is considered to be rather less profitable. Although flows are estimated to be about 65 billion m3, limited precipitation and high evaporation constrict extensive usage of the ressource of water.[47] Recent evaluations showed that only 25 billion m3 can be used effectively.[48] Despite these facts, Algeria still comes with more than 100 dams and some dozens more that are already projected.[49] Although these numbers are not the most current ones, they do show however that Algeria is making use of very different sources of renewable energy.

Other renewable Sources

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Key problems of the energy sector

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Policy framework, laws and regulations

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General Energy policy, Energy strategy

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Important Laws and regulations

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Specific strategies (Biomass, renewable energies, rural electrification, energy access strategy etc.)

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Institutional set up in the energy sector

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Governmental institutions Private sector (enterprises, NGOs)

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Further Reading

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External links

Reference list

  1. Auswärtiges Amt (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Last Updated: October, 2010, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes_Uebersichtsseiten/Algerien_node.html
  2. Deutsche Außenhandelskammer (German Chamber of Foreign Trade - AHK), Last Updated: 2011, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://algerien.ahk.de/algerien/
  3. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html
  4. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html
  5. Auswärtiges Amt (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Last Updated: October, 2010, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes_Uebersichtsseiten/Algerien_node.html
  6. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html
  7. Auswärtiges Amt (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Last Updated: October, 2010, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Laenderinfos/01-Nodes_Uebersichtsseiten/Algerien_node.html
  8. Deutsche Außenhandelskammer (German Chamber of Foreign Trade - AHK), Last Updated: 2011, Access: September 16, 2011, URL: http://algerien.ahk.de/algerien/
  9. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html
  10. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - World Factbook, Last Updated: August 23, 2011, Accessed: September 16, 2011, URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html
  11. International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ
  12. International Energy Agency, ©2011, "2008 Energy Balance for Algeria", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 19, 2011, URL: http://www.iea.org/stats/balancetable.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=DZ
  13. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (MEM), Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/francais/index.php?page=perspectives-de-developpement
  14. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (MEM), Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/francais/index.php?page=perspectives-de-developpement
  15. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2010), "Bilan Energetique National de l'année 2009", pg. 19.
  16. Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 10
  17. German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1
  18. Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 10-11
  19. Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 10-11
  20. Commission de Régulation de l’Electricité et du Gaz (CREG) (2008), „Programme indicatif des besoins en moyens de production d’électricité 2008 – 2017“, pg. 11
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Wuppertal Institute of Climate, Environment and Energy (2010), "Algeria - A Future Supplier of Electricity from Renewable Energies for Europe?", pg. 27 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "null" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "null" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "null" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "null" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "null" defined multiple times with different content
  22. Groupe Sonelgaz (2009), "Rapport d'Activite 2009 &amp;amp;amp;amp; comptes de gestion consolidés", pg. 26
  23. Wuppertal Institute of Climate, Environment and Energy (2010), "Algeria - A Future Supplier of Electricity from Renewable Energies for Europe?", pg. 27
  24. Wuppertal Institute of Climate, Environment and Energy (2010), "Algeria - A Future Supplier of Electricity from Renewable Energies for Europe?", pg. 27
  25. Euro-Mediterranean Energy Market Ingeration Project, Last Update: September 08, 2011, Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.medemip.eu/WebPages/Common/showpage.aspx?pageid=184
  26. International Energy Association (IEA) (2010), "Key World Energy Statistics 2010", pg. 51
  27. Baumann, H. (2007), "Changing household patterns create opportunities for construction, retail and finance", Last Updated: April, 2007, Accessed: September 20, 2011, URL: http://www.euromonitor.com/changing-household-patterns-create-opportunities-for-construction-retail-and-finance/article
  28. The World Bank (2011), "Rural population (% of total population)", Last Updated: 2011, Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS
  29. Renewable Energy &amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Access: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;cid=120
  30. German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1
  31. German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1
  32. German-Algerian Chamber of Industry and Commerce (2010), "AHK-Geschäftsreise Algerien - Geschäftschancen für deutsche Unternehmen im Bereich Photovoltaik, Solarthermie und CSP", pg. 1
  33. Ministère d'Electricité et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Progam", pg. 4
  34. Ministère d'Electricité et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Progam", pg. 4
  35. Ministère d 'Energie et des Mines, "Bilan général des réalisations", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/fr/enr/energie%20solaire/Bilan_generale.htm
  36. Ministry of Energy and Mines (2007), "Guidelines to Renewable Energies", pg. 13
  37. Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010), Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;cid=120
  38. Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010), Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;cid=120
  39. Ministère d'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 18
  40. Ministère d'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 19
  41. Renewable Energy &amp;amp;amp; Energy Efficiency Partnership, "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 21, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&amp;amp;amp;special=viewitem&amp;amp;amp;cid=120
  42. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 20-21
  43. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 21
  44. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 4
  45. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines (2011), "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program", pg. 4
  46. Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), "Policy DB Details: Algeria (2010)", Last Update: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.reeep.org/index.php?id=9353&special=viewitem&cid=120
  47. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines, "Potential", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/english/index.php?page=potentiels
  48. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines, "Potential", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/english/index.php?page=potentiels
  49. Ministère de l'Energie et des Mines, "Potential", Last Updated: - , Accessed: September 23, 2011, URL: http://www.mem-algeria.org/english/index.php?page=potentiels




Establishment/Project Data

ID: 42712
Name:
Timvane
Type: Production centre (portable stoves)
Start: Year establishment started business 2015
Technology: unknown
ICS produced: ICS sold: Date: 2016-01-04
Employees (total): 0|.|,}} Female: 0|.|,}} Male: 0|.|,}}
Programme: Programme under which establishment is active ADRA / ECRP

Picture

Cookstove default.png

Location Data

District: Mwanza
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TA: Govati
GVH: Msembedzera
Village: Phalira
Road: Accessibilty/Road (Distance in KM to primary road) 24 km
District information
Area in sq. Km:
Population:
Tree cover (%):

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