GTZ Position (Subsidies….A Think Piece; Fuel Price Index; Access for All – Illusions and Solutions; REN21 etc.): Mehr Transparenz über Kosten und Preise ist die Voraussetzung für eine vermehrte Diskussion/Partizipation und kann zum Abbau von Subventionen führen. Es gibt zwar viele Lobbygruppen, die ein Interesse an Intransparenz haben. Dennoch nutzt die Transparenz der Politik letztlich, weil sie damit zusätzliche Argumente für den Abbau von Subventionen erhält. In DE wurde mit dem 20. Subventionsbericht (2003) ebenfalls eine Neuabgrenzung der Finanzhilfen vorgenommen, die den Regelungen der EU-Energiesteuerrichtlinie (RiLi 2003/96/EG) entspricht und für mehr Transparenz sorgt.
Siehe dazu auch: GSI/UNEP, April 2010: “Gaining Traction: The importance of transparency in accelerating the reform of fossil-fuel subsidies” <o:p></o:p>
Aus dieser Studie:
Transparency as a foundation for reform
Transparency can influence reform in at least four ways (Hale, 2008):
1. by institutionalizing public discourse: the act of disclosure starts a dialogue between the discloser and
2. by compelling actors to tell the truth, making it difficult for discourse to be manipulated by one “loud,”
3. by cutting through the flood of information and often contradictory claims to focus attention on facts;
4. by promoting self-reflection within the organization or government, compelling actors to comply with
their own standards and norms.
In considering the extent to which improving transparency could assist reform, the key consideration appears
to be one of ensuring its relevance. For transparency to be useful, information users and providers must desire
disclosure of the information and see how such transparency can help meet their objectives.
Improved information about fossil-fuel subsidies, in particular, can help governments meet their reform
objectives. At the simplest level, information about the subsidy and its effects facilitates an assessment of its
costs and benefits and, therefore, of the implications of reform. Making this information publicly available
increases awareness of the effects of existing policies and allows public input to decision-making (Wolfe and
Many governments understand the economic, social and environmental problems created by subsidies, but
are under political pressure to maintain them. Transparency can expose those winners and losers created by
subsidies and therefore help to broaden support for reform (Victor, 2009)....
Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI) - "The Effects of Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Reform: A review of modelling and empirical studies" The Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI) releases the publication of Jennifer Ellis’ paper “The Effects of Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Reform: A review of modelling and empirical studies.” This is the second paper to be published in the series Untold Billions: Fossil-fuel subsidies, their impacts and the path to reform. Subsidies are powerful instruments and when granted to fossil fuels, which are at the heart of all modern economies, subsidies have impacts throughout the economy, society and environment. Understanding the complex trade-offs between the different impacts of subsidy reform is a challenge for any government considering phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies. In this report, Jennifer Ellis provides a detailed literature review, focusing on the six modeling studies in the last 20 years that have attempted to analyze global impacts of subsidies for all fuels. The studies mostly considered effects on greenhouse gas emissions and gross domestic product, but very little of the work has considered other environmental impacts or social impacts. The paper highlights a number of areas where further research should be undertaken but concludes that there is already enough evidence to demonstrate the significant environmental and economic benefits of phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies, and recommends that policy-makers do not delay in beginning the reform process.<o:p></o:p>
Download at: http://www.globalsubsidies.org/en/research/economic-social-and-environmental-effects .<o:p></o:p>
EARTH TRACK: EIA Energy Subsidy Estimates: A Review of Assumptions and Omissions <o:p></o:p>
This Review provides a detailed look at gaps in federal tracking of energy subsidies in the United States. In addition to evaluating the research approach used by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Review assesses how key assumptions and omissions in EIA's work resulted in a substantial undercounting of federal energy subsidies and an inaccurate portrayal of subsidy distribution across fuels. EIA estimates are also placed in the context of other assessments of domestic energy subsidies conducted over the past thirty years.<o:p></o:p>
Read more: http://earthtrack.net/files/uploaded_files/EIA%20subsidy%20review%20final_17Mar10.pdf <o:p></o:p>
IMF Note - Petroleum Product Subsidies: Costly, Inequitable, and Rising Petroleum product subsidies have again started to rise with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that it is necessary to reform the policy framework for setting petroleum product prices in order to reduce the fiscal burden of these subsidies and to address climate change. In 2003, global consumer subsidies for petroleum products totaled nearly $60 billion. Read more: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/spn/2010/spn1005.pdf<o:p></o:p>