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Difference between revisions of "World Bank Reasons for Success and Failure of Stove Projects"

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'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb">Possible reasons for success or failure of stove programs,</span>''' '''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb">World Bank 1994 </span>'''
 
  
<br>
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= Overview<br/> =
  
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The main justifications for improved stove programs are economic, social, and environmental. The stoves save money and time for householders; help alleviate the environmental problems and economic externalities of overharvesting of trees; and have social and health benefits, especially for women and children.
|- style="mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"
 
| style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 3.5pt; border-top: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-left: 3.5pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 238.65pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="318" |
 
'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Reasons for success</span>'''
 
  
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Each program will face a distinctive set of challenges and benefits, depending on local conditions. Planners thus should strive to anticipate the particular circumstances of each program so that it can be tailored to increase the probability of stove adoption. Even though each program is distinctive and none universal, there are some common elements that provide some general lessons for maximizing the success of a program.<ref name="World Bank: What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? - http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf">World Bank: What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? - http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf</ref>
'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Reasons for failure</span>'''
 
  
|- style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"
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<br/>
| style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 3.5pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 3.5pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: windowtext 1pt solid; width: 238.65pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="318" |
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Program targets region where traditional fuel and stove are purchased of fuel is hard to collect</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">People cook in environments where smoke causes health problems and is annoying.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Market surveys are undertaken to assess potential market for improved stoves.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stoves are designed according to consumer preferences, including testing under actual use.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stoves are designed with assistance from local artisans.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Local or crap materials are used in production, making it relatively inexpensive.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The production of the stove by artisans or manufacturers is not subsidized.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stove or critical components are mass produced.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Similar to traditional stove.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove is easy to light and accepts different sized wood.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Power output of stove can be adjusted.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The government assists only in dissemination, technical advice, and quality control.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove saves fuel, time, and effort.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Donor or government support extended over at least 5 years and designed to build local institutions and to develop local expertise.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Monitoring and evaluation criteria and responsibilities chosen during planning stages according to specific goals of project.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Consumer payback of 1 to 3 months.</span>
 
  
| style="border-right: windowtext 1pt solid; padding-right: 3.5pt; border-top: #ece9d8; padding-left: 3.5pt; padding-bottom: 0cm; border-left: #ece9d8; width: 238.65pt; padding-top: 0cm; border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid; background-color: transparent; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" valign="top" width="318" |
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= Reasons for Success / Failure<ref name="World Bank: What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? - http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf">World Bank: What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? - http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf</ref> =
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Program targets region where traditional fuel and stove are not purchased or fuel is easy to collect</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">People cook in the open and smoke is not really a problem</span>
 
  
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Outside “experts” determine that improved stoves are required.</span>
+
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|- style="mso-yfti-irow: 0;  mso-yfti-firstrow: yes"
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| style="vertical-align: top;  border-right: 1pt solid windowtext;  padding: 0cm 3.5pt;  border-width: 1pt;  border-style: solid;  border-color: windowtext;  width: 238px;  background-color: rgb(51, 255, 51)" |
 +
'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Reasons for Success</span>'''
  
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stove is designed as a technical package in the laboratory, ignoring customers’ preferences.</span>
+
| style="vertical-align: top; border-right: 1pt solid windowtext; padding: 0cm 3.5pt; border-width: 1pt 1pt 1pt medium; border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: windowtext windowtext windowtext rgb(236, 233, 216); width: 238px; background-color: rgb(255, 102, 51)" |
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Local artisans are told or even contracted to build stoves according to specifications.</span>
+
'''<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Reasons for Failure</span>'''
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Imported materials are used in the production of the stove, making it expensive.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The production of the stove by artisans or manufacturers is subsidized.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Critical stove components are custom built.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Dissimilar to traditional stove.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove is difficult to light and requires the use of small pieces of wood.</span>
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Power output cannot be easily controlled.</span>  
 
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The government is involved in production.</span>
 
  
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove does not live up to promised economy or convenience under real cooking conditions.</span>  
+
|- style="mso-yfti-irow: 1;  mso-yfti-lastrow: yes"
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Major achievements expected in less than 3 years, all analysis, planning, and management done by outsiders.</span>
+
| style="vertical-align: top;  width: 318px;  border-right: windowtext 1pt solid;  padding-right: 3.5pt;  border-top: #ece9d8;  padding-left: 3.5pt;  padding-bottom: 0cm;  border-left: windowtext 1pt solid;  width: 238.65pt;  padding-top: 0cm;  border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid;  background-color: transparent;  mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt;  mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" |
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Program targets region where traditional fuel and stove are purchased of fuel is hard to collect</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">People cook in environments where smoke causes health problems and is annoying.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Market surveys are undertaken to assess potential market for improved stoves.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stoves are designed according to consumer preferences, including testing under actual use.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stoves are designed with assistance from local artisans.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Local or crap materials are used in production, making it relatively inexpensive.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The production of the stove by artisans or manufacturers is not subsidized.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stove or critical components are mass produced.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Similar to traditional stove.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove is easy to light and accepts different sized wood.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Power output of stove can be adjusted.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The government assists only in dissemination, technical advice, and quality control.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove saves fuel, time, and effort.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Donor or government support extended over at least 5 years and designed to build local institutions and to develop local expertise.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Monitoring and evaluation criteria and responsibilities chosen during planning stages according to specific goals of project.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Consumer payback of 1 to 3 months.</span>
  
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Monitoring and evaluation needs are not planned and budgeted or criteria are taken uncritically from other projects or not explicitly expressed.</span>  
+
| style="vertical-align: top;  width: 318px;  border-right: windowtext 1pt solid;  padding-right: 3.5pt;  border-top: #ece9d8;  padding-left: 3.5pt;  padding-bottom: 0cm;  border-left: #ece9d8;  width: 238.65pt;  padding-top: 0cm;  border-bottom: windowtext 1pt solid;  background-color: transparent;  mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt;  mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt;  mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt" |
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Consumer payback of more than1 year.</span>
+
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Program targets region where traditional fuel and stove are not purchased or fuel is easy to collect</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">People cook in the open and smoke is not really a problem</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Outside “experts” determine that improved stoves are required.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Stove is designed as a technical package in the laboratory, ignoring customers’ preferences.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Local artisans are told or even contracted to build stoves according to specifications.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Imported materials are used in the production of the stove, making it expensive.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The production of the stove by artisans or manufacturers is subsidized.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Critical stove components are custom built.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Dissimilar to traditional stove.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove is difficult to light and requires the use of small pieces of wood.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Power output cannot be easily controlled.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The government is involved in production.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">The stove does not live up to promised economy or convenience under real cooking conditions.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt;  font-family: 'arial','sans-serif';  mso-ansi-language: en-gb;  mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Major achievements expected in less than 3 years, all analysis, planning, and management done by outsiders.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Monitoring and evaluation needs are not planned and budgeted or criteria are taken uncritically from other projects or not explicitly expressed.</span>
 +
*<span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 11pt; font-family: 'arial','sans-serif'; mso-ansi-language: en-gb; mso-bidi-font-size: 13.0pt">Consumer payback of more than 1 year.</span>
  
 
|}
 
|}
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<br/>
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 +
 +
= Further Information =
 +
 +
*[[Portal:Improved_Cooking|Improved Cooking Portal]] on energypedia
 +
*[[GIZ_HERA_Cooking_Energy_Compendium|Cooking Energy Compendium]] on energypedia
 +
*[[GIZ HERA Cooking Energy Compendium|World Bank]]
 +
*[[GIZ HERA Cooking Energy Compendium|Cooking Energy Compendium on energypedia (GIZ HERA )]]
 +
*[http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf World Bank: What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves?]
 +
 +
<br/>
 +
 +
 +
= References =
 +
 +
<references />
 +
 +
[[Category:Sustainability]]
 +
[[Category:Improved_Cooking]]
 +
[[Category:Cookstoves]]
 +
[[Category:Impacts]]
 +
[[Category:Cooking_Energy]]

Latest revision as of 10:13, 19 December 2016

Overview

The main justifications for improved stove programs are economic, social, and environmental. The stoves save money and time for householders; help alleviate the environmental problems and economic externalities of overharvesting of trees; and have social and health benefits, especially for women and children.

Each program will face a distinctive set of challenges and benefits, depending on local conditions. Planners thus should strive to anticipate the particular circumstances of each program so that it can be tailored to increase the probability of stove adoption. Even though each program is distinctive and none universal, there are some common elements that provide some general lessons for maximizing the success of a program.[1]


Reasons for Success / Failure[1]

Reasons for Success

Reasons for Failure

  • Program targets region where traditional fuel and stove are purchased of fuel is hard to collect
  • People cook in environments where smoke causes health problems and is annoying.
  • Market surveys are undertaken to assess potential market for improved stoves.
  • Stoves are designed according to consumer preferences, including testing under actual use.
  • Stoves are designed with assistance from local artisans.
  • Local or crap materials are used in production, making it relatively inexpensive.
  • The production of the stove by artisans or manufacturers is not subsidized.
  • Stove or critical components are mass produced.
  • Similar to traditional stove.
  • The stove is easy to light and accepts different sized wood.
  • Power output of stove can be adjusted.
  • The government assists only in dissemination, technical advice, and quality control.
  • The stove saves fuel, time, and effort.
  • Donor or government support extended over at least 5 years and designed to build local institutions and to develop local expertise.
  • Monitoring and evaluation criteria and responsibilities chosen during planning stages according to specific goals of project.
  • Consumer payback of 1 to 3 months.
  • Program targets region where traditional fuel and stove are not purchased or fuel is easy to collect
  • People cook in the open and smoke is not really a problem
  • Outside “experts” determine that improved stoves are required.
  • Stove is designed as a technical package in the laboratory, ignoring customers’ preferences.
  • Local artisans are told or even contracted to build stoves according to specifications.
  • Imported materials are used in the production of the stove, making it expensive.
  • The production of the stove by artisans or manufacturers is subsidized.
  • Critical stove components are custom built.
  • Dissimilar to traditional stove.
  • The stove is difficult to light and requires the use of small pieces of wood.
  • Power output cannot be easily controlled.
  • The government is involved in production.
  • The stove does not live up to promised economy or convenience under real cooking conditions.
  • Major achievements expected in less than 3 years, all analysis, planning, and management done by outsiders.
  • Monitoring and evaluation needs are not planned and budgeted or criteria are taken uncritically from other projects or not explicitly expressed.
  • Consumer payback of more than 1 year.



Further Information



References