Burma (Myanmar) Energy Situation

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Myanmar
Flag of Myanmar.png
Location _______.png

Capital:

Naypyidaw

Region:

Coordinates:

22.0000° N, 96.0000° E

Total Area (km²): It includes a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

676,590

Population: It is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin.

54,409,794 (2020)

Rural Population (% of total population): It refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

69 (2020)

GDP (current US$): It is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

76,185,586,097 (2020)

GDP Per Capita (current US$): It is gross domestic product divided by midyear population

1,400.22 (2020)

Access to Electricity (% of population): It is the percentage of population with access to electricity.

68.36 (2019)

Energy Imports Net (% of energy use): It is estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

-32.97 (2014)

Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption (% of total): It comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products.

44.29 (2014)

Source: World Bank



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Introduction

Republic of the Union of Myanmar also known as Burma is the second largest country in Southeast Asia. The most productive industry in Burma are power industry and oil as well as gas. These industries are also opened for foreign investment, with China being the leading foreign investor.[1]

Energy Situation

In 2009, the traditional biomass (70%) has the largest share in primary energy supply, followed by natural gas (18%), oil (9%), hydro (2%) and coal(1%). In terms of electricity generation (2010-2011) hydro (72%) has the largest share followed by the natural gas (23%), coal (5%) and oil.[1]

To see the map of the "national grid system" in Myanmar, click here.

Currently (2016), the per capita electricity consumption is only around 150-160kWh, this is very low compared to others (India 680kWh; Vietnam 1,280kWh). [2]

As part of the National Electrification Project (NEP) in Myanmar, 1300 villages in rural areas will be electrified using solar power in FY 2019-20. The villagers will have to cover 20% of the power-generation cost while the rest will be covered by the government. The targeted villages are located in Mandalay, Magwe, Bago, Irrawaddy and Tanintharyi regions.[3]

NEP also aims to achieve 100% electrification by 2030. In its first phase, NEP aims to provide electricity access to over 620,000 households in some 5,000 villages within a 2-mile radius of the national grid across the country. The first phase is expected to complete in June 2020. In its  second phase, electricity will be supplied to villages within a 5-mile radius of the grid.[3]

Electricity Tariff

Myanmar has one of the lowest electricity tariffs in the world. Effective April 2014, residential tariffs range from Ks 35 - Ks 50 per kWh [USD 0.026 - 0.037, Exchange rate of June 2018]. First 100 units are billed at Ks 35/kWh, next 100 units cost Ks 40/kWh and units beyond 200 kWh cost Ks 50/kWh. 

Prices for commercial and industrial customers are higher, ranging from Ks 75/kWh - Ks 150/kWh, according to the below consumption structure:

<500 kWh Ks 75
501–10,000 kWh Ks 100
10,001–50,000 kWh Ks 125
50,001–200,000 kWh Ks 150
200,001–300,000 kWh Ks 125
>300,001 kWh Ks 100


Further information

Tim Dobermann: Energy in Myanmar. Policy Brief. 2016 (International Growth Centre): http://www.theigc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Dobermann-2016.pdf

  • Electricity development; access; policies; summary of a key research agenda for the country

Reference