|| The purpose of this report is to analyse the impact of delivery models on the creation of sustainable welfare benefits. Three case studies are selected, one renewable energy mini-grid project or programme from each of Nepal, Peru and Kenya. Although rural electrification poses a great challenge to all three countries (only 32 per cent of rural Nepalese, 23 per cent of rural Peruvians and 10 per cent of rural Kenyans have access to electricity in their homes), their different physical, institutional, economic and socio-cultural contexts have led to different approaches to rural electrification. These approaches, alongside some of the countries’ major electrification challenges, are described in Chapter 2. The case studies are compared and analysed in terms of their ability to generate sustainable welfare benefits for their intended beneficiaries (Chapter 3). A series of 43 Sustainability Indicators (based on five dimensions of Sustainability – Economic, Technical, Social, Environmental and Institutional Sustainability) – are designed and used to assess the projects’ impact and their likely sustainability.