|| National governments have produced reports showing how they will meet Article 7 targets through energy efficiency policies. They have taken a wide range of approaches, from reporting a single policy which will meet the Article 7 targets (e.g. Sweden, Denmark) to combinations of tens of different policies (e.g. the Netherlands, Germany). These different policy mixes are described in detail in ENSPOL reports (ENSPOL 2015a, 2015b, 2015c). Most Member States (MS) have employed a mix of policies, rather than single policies, but the composition of these policy mixes varies considerably. The reasons why MS have chosen the mixes they have are rooted in many different contextual factors, including history, geography, politics and broader policy goals. Nonetheless, most MS are trying to encourage the adoption of similar technologies and it is worthwhile trying to understand the advantages and disadvantages of different policy mixes employed for doing this.
This report is based on a mixture of literature review and empirical analysis, to get a better understanding of the types of policy mix being currently used in the EU, and to develop an analysis of the different types of mix. The focus is on policies which deliver Article 7 savings, which means that it does not encompass all forms of efficiency policy. Policies which were already mandatory within the EU, e.g. energy labelling, minimum standards for buildings, are not included as they are not additional and the Directive excludes those from being used for the purpose of Article 7. Neither are policies which occur in the early stages of technology innovation, e.g. RD&D support. The focus is on national (and sub-national) policies which affect the uptake of energy efficiency options already available on the market.