Gabon Energy Situation

From energypedia


Gabon
Flag of Gabon.png
Location _______.png

Capital:

Libreville

Region:

Coordinates:

1.073968° S, 10.85873° E

Total Area (km²): It includes a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

267,670

Population: It is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin.

2,225,728 (2020)

Rural Population (% of total population): It refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

10 (2020)

GDP (current US$): It is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

15,593,181,271 (2020)

GDP Per Capita (current US$): It is gross domestic product divided by midyear population

7,005.88 (2020)

Access to Electricity (% of population): It is the percentage of population with access to electricity.

90.69 (2019)

Energy Imports Net (% of energy use): It is estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

-213.40 (2014)

Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption (% of total): It comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products.

22.79 (2014)

Source: World Bank



Additional information on Gabon on energypedia:
Solar

Currently there are no articles.

Wind Energy

Currently there are no articles.

Icon-finance.png Bioenergy

Currently there are no articles.

Hydro

Currently there are no articles.

Grid/Mini-grid

Currently there are no articles.

Improved Cooking

Currently there are no articles.

Productive Use

Currently there are no articles.

Energy Access
  • 04- Gabon's Rural Electricity Access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019).PNG
  • 03- Gabon's Urban Electricity Access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019).PNG
  • 02- Gabon's Total Electricity Access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG&, 2019).PNG
Climate Change

Currently there are no articles.

Powering Agriculture

Currently there are no articles.

Financing & Funding

Currently there are no articles.

Others

Currently there are no articles.


Introduction

Gabon lies on the equator, and located on the far west coast of Cengtral Africa. The country borders 3 countries & the Gulf of Guinea; to the north-west is Equatorial Guinea, to the north is Cameroon & to both east & south is the Republic of Congo, while the Gulf of Guinea is to the west.


Gabon's Borders Map (UN, 2004)


Energy Situation

Overview of the Country's Energy Sources

Gabon's total land area is about 85% forest, which makes biomass a predominant energy source for supplying the country's domestic sector needs in particular[1][2]. Gabon has also high potential for hydro-electric generation due to its topography and high-precipitation conditions[1].


In terms of proven and recoverable oil reserves, the country is considered to be one of the richest in sub-Sharan Africa, ranking the 5th largest in the continent (After Nigeria, Angola, Sudan, South Sudan & Uganda)[1][2]. It also ranks as the 3rd largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa; following Nigeria & Angola[1].


The country's two main energy sources are fossil-fuels and hydropower[1]. 51.7% of Gabon's total produced electricity in 2015 were generated from hydro, and 48.2% were from fossil fuels[1]. Gabon relies heavily on oil for both its export revenues & its domestic energy production[3]. The other major energy source is hydropower, from which the country's government aims to produce up to 1200 MW by 2020[3].


Energy Access

Compared to other countries in the region, Gabon has a good electrification rate with approximately 91.4% of the total population has access to electricity, leaving about 200,000 citizens lacking it[4][5]


As shown in the following figure, Gabon's electrification rate has been steadily on the rise between the late 90s and 2008. The electrification rate witnessed a significant rise between 2008-2010, yet it started to slow down from 2010 until 2013, when it started to steadily increase again until recently.


Gabon's Total Electricity Access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG&, 2019)


Gabon's urban electrification rate reached almost 97.5% by 2017, while the rural electrification rate was 50% at the same year, as shown the next 2 figures respectively.


Gabon's Urban Electricity Access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Gabon's Rural Electricity Access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Production

Table: Gabon’s Production of Different Energy Sources 2000-2018[6]
Energy source Unit 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Charcoal kt 15 18 21 21 22 22 23 23
Crude oil kt 13797 13477 11608 11607 11147 9993 10014 10137
Natural gas TJ 3134 3917 11755 56334 20750 20900 20778 21022
Hydro-electricity GWh 809 819 932 795 862 930 1013 1104
Electricity from renewables GWh 0 0 4 6 2 2 2 2
Oil products kt 599 706 797 774 762 826 886 951


Installed Capacity

Table: Gabon's Total Electricity Installed Capacity 2011-2018 (MW)[7]
Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Renewables 170.2 170.2 330.2 330.2 330.2 330.3 332.9 332.9
Hydro 170.2 170.2 330.2 330.2 330.2 330.3 330.3 330.3


Gabon's total primary energy supply by source 1990-2016 (IEA, 2018)


Consumption

Table: Gabon's Final Consumption of Different Energy Sources 2000-2018[6]
Energy source Unit 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Oil Kt 311 350 761 741 728 753 771 791
Natural gas TJ 56 66 93 110 114 116 125 136
Electricity GWh 989 1184 1736 1997 2104 2107 2133 2259


06- Gabon's final energy consumption of different energy sources 1990-2016 (IEA, 2018)


Import and Export

During the year 2016, Gabon's imported electricity's capacity was about 344 million kWh, with no export capacity at all, while the country's exported crude oil in the year 2017 was approximately 214,200 barrels/day[4]. In the year 2015, Gabon's refined petroleum products' export capacity was around 4,662 barrels/day[4].


Table: Gabon's Total Net Imports of Different Energy Sources 2000-2018[6]
Energy source Unit 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Oil products Kt 808 20 315 256 253 255 258 261
Electricity GWh 0 0 184 388 337 344 369 403


Gabon's total net energy imports 1990-2016 (IEA, 2018)


Electricity

Table: Gabon’s Electricity Situation’s General Indicators[4]

Production Consumption Exports Imports Installed Generation Power
Capacity 2.224 billion kWh 2.071 kWh 0 kWh 344 million kWh 671000 kW
World Ranking 137 143 137 85 137


Table: Gabon's both Total Production and Final Consumption capacities of Electricity (GWh) 2000-2018[6]
Year 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Production 1147 1385 2266 3219 3378 3092 3196 3310
Consumption 989 1184 1736 1997 2104 2017 2133 2259


Gabon's renewable generated electricity by source 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Energy Security

Renewable Energy

General Indicators

Table: Gabon’s Total Renewable Energy Capacity in MW 2009-2018[8]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Capacity 172 172 172 172 332 332 333 333 333 333


Renewable energy share in Gabon's final energy consumption 1990-2015 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Gabon's renewable energy consumption by source in 2015 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Solar

Gabon has an average of 300 sun-shining days per year, with an average daily solar insolation of approximately 4 kWh/m2[1]. Yet, as mentioned earlier, the country is heavily forested, which stands in the way of connecting remote communities to the country's main grid[1]. Therefore, with such solar conditions, stand-alone solar systems would be the ideal solution for power generation for these communities in Gabon[1].


Table: Gabon's Total Solar Capacity in MW 2009-2018[8]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Capacity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


Gabon's solar generated electricity 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Hydropower

According to the African Development Bank (ADB), Gabon has a hydro generating potential that ranges between 5000-6000 MW, yet as many other countries in the region, that potential is still far from being met to its fullest[3].


Table: Gabon's Total Hydro Installed Capacity in MW 2009-2018[8]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Capacity 170 170 170 170 330 330 330 330 330 330


Gabon's hydro generated electricity 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Fossil Fuels

Oil

The Port-Gentil area is where Gabon's main oil fields are located, both on-shore and off-shore[1].


Table: Proved Gabonese Oil Reserves since 1980 (1000 million barrels)[9]
Year 1980 1990 2000 2010 2015 2016 2017
Reserves 0.5 0.9 2.4 2 2 2 2


Table: Oil Production in Gabon since 1965 (1000 barrels/day)[9]
Year 1965 1975 1985 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017
Produced capacity 25 227 173 356 276 270 249 225 220 200


Gabonese crude oil production 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Table: Gabonese Refinery & Oil Products' Output & Final Consumption (Kt) 2000-2018[6]
Year 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Produced Capacity 599 706 797 774 762 826 886 951
Final Consumption 311 350 761 741 728 753 771 791


Gabonese oil products consumption 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Key Problems of the Energy Sector

There is rarely any proper recent research papers on the challenges that the Gabonese energy sector faces currently. The only proper source that could be used for this chapter goes back to 1988, which makes its applicability questionable in 2019, but it can be found under "Gabon: Issues and Options in the Energy Sector".

Policy Framework, Laws and Regulations

Institutional Set up in the Energy Sector

Other Key Actors / Activities of Donors, Implementing Agencies, Civil Society Organisations

Further Information

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Lund, H.G. & Mabirizi, F. (2017). Atlas of Africa Energy Resources. Retrieved from: https://www.icafrica.org/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Africa_Energy_Atlas.pdf
  2. 2.0 2.1 World Bank. (2019). The World Bank In Gabon. Retrieved from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/gabon/overview
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Nachmany, M. Fankhauser, S. Davidová, J. Kingsmill, N. Landesman, T. Roppongi, H. Schleifer, P. Setzer, J. Sharman, A. Singleton, C.S. Sundaresan, J. & Townshend, T. (2015). Climate Change Legislation in Gabon: An Excerpt from the 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study – A Review of Climate Change in 99 Countries. Retrieved from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/GABON.pdf Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Nachmany, M. Fankhauser, S. Davidová, J. Kingsmill, N. Landesman, T. Roppongi, H. Schleifer, P. Setzer, J. Sharman, A. Singleton, C.S. Sundaresan, J. & Townshend, T. (2015). Climate Change Legislation in Gabon: An Excerpt from the 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study – A Review of Climate Change in 99 Countries. Retrieved from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/GABON.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Nachmany, M. Fankhauser, S. Davidová, J. Kingsmill, N. Landesman, T. Roppongi, H. Schleifer, P. Setzer, J. Sharman, A. Singleton, C.S. Sundaresan, J. & Townshend, T. (2015). Climate Change Legislation in Gabon: An Excerpt from the 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study – A Review of Climate Change in 99 Countries. Retrieved from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/GABON.pdf" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2019). The World Fact-book: Africa: Gabon. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gb.html
  5. Tracking SDG7. (2019). Gabon. Retrieved from: https://trackingsdg7.esmap.org/country/gabon
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 African Energy Commission (AFREC). (2019). Africa Energy Database. Retrieved from: https://afrec-energy.org/Docs/En/PDF/2018/statistics_2018_afrec.pdf
  7. Africa Energy Portal (AEP). (2019). Retrieved from: https://africa-energy-portal.org/country/gabon
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Whiteman, A. Esparrago, J. Rueda, S. Elsayed, S. & Arkhipove, I. (2019). Renewable Energy Statistics 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/Mar/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2019.pdf
  9. 9.0 9.1 BP. (2018). BP Statistical Review of World Energy. Retrieved from: https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/downloads.html