Gabon Energy Situation
1.073968° S, 10.85873° E
Total Area (km²): It includes a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.
Population: It is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin.
Rural Population (% of total population): It refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.
GDP (current US$): It is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
GDP Per Capita (current US$): It is gross domestic product divided by midyear population
Access to Electricity (% of population): It is the percentage of population with access to electricity.
Energy Imports Net (% of energy use): It is estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption (% of total): It comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products.
Gabon lies on the equator, and located on the far west coast of Cengtral Africa. The country borders 3 countries & the Gulf of Guinea; to the north-west is Equatorial Guinea, to the north is Cameroon & to both east & south is the Republic of Congo, while the Gulf of Guinea is to the west.
Overview of the Country's Energy Sources
Gabon's total land area is about 85% forest, which makes biomass a predominant energy source for supplying the country's domestic sector needs in particular. Gabon has also high potential for hydro-electric generation due to its topography and high-precipitation conditions.
In terms of proven and recoverable oil reserves, the country is considered to be one of the richest in sub-Sharan Africa, ranking the 5th largest in the continent (After Nigeria, Angola, Sudan, South Sudan & Uganda). It also ranks as the 3rd largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa; following Nigeria & Angola.
The country's two main energy sources are fossil-fuels and hydropower. 51.7% of Gabon's total produced electricity in 2015 were generated from hydro, and 48.2% were from fossil fuels. Gabon relies heavily on oil for both its export revenues & its domestic energy production. The other major energy source is hydropower, from which the country's government aims to produce up to 1200 MW by 2020.
Compared to other countries in the region, Gabon has a good electrification rate with approximately 91.4% of the total population has access to electricity, leaving about 200,000 citizens lacking it.
As shown in the following figure, Gabon's electrification rate has been steadily on the rise between the late 90s and 2008. The electrification rate witnessed a significant rise between 2008-2010, yet it started to slow down from 2010 until 2013, when it started to steadily increase again until recently.
Gabon's urban electrification rate reached almost 97.5% by 2017, while the rural electrification rate was 50% at the same year, as shown the next 2 figures respectively.
|Electricity from renewables||GWh||0||0||4||6||2||2||2||2|
Import and Export
During the year 2016, Gabon's imported electricity's capacity was about 344 million kWh, with no export capacity at all, while the country's exported crude oil in the year 2017 was approximately 214,200 barrels/day. In the year 2015, Gabon's refined petroleum products' export capacity was around 4,662 barrels/day.
|Production||Consumption||Exports||Imports||Installed Generation Power|
|Capacity||2.224 billion kWh||2.071 kWh||0 kWh||344 million kWh||671000 kW|
Gabon has an average of 300 sun-shining days per year, with an average daily solar insolation of approximately 4 kWh/m2. Yet, as mentioned earlier, the country is heavily forested, which stands in the way of connecting remote communities to the country's main grid. Therefore, with such solar conditions, stand-alone solar systems would be the ideal solution for power generation for these communities in Gabon.
According to the African Development Bank (ADB), Gabon has a hydro generating potential that ranges between 5000-6000 MW, yet as many other countries in the region, that potential is still far from being met to its fullest.
The Port-Gentil area is where Gabon's main oil fields are located, both on-shore and off-shore.
Key Problems of the Energy Sector
There is rarely any proper recent research papers on the challenges that the Gabonese energy sector faces currently. The only proper source that could be used for this chapter goes back to 1988, which makes its applicability questionable in 2019, but it can be found under "Gabon: Issues and Options in the Energy Sector".
Policy Framework, Laws and Regulations
Institutional Set up in the Energy Sector
Other Key Actors / Activities of Donors, Implementing Agencies, Civil Society Organisations
- Lund, H.G. & Mabirizi, F. (2017). Atlas of Africa Energy Resources. Retrieved from: https://www.icafrica.org/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Africa_Energy_Atlas.pdf
- World Bank. (2019). The World Bank In Gabon. Retrieved from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/gabon/overview
- Nachmany, M. Fankhauser, S. Davidová, J. Kingsmill, N. Landesman, T. Roppongi, H. Schleifer, P. Setzer, J. Sharman, A. Singleton, C.S. Sundaresan, J. & Townshend, T. (2015). Climate Change Legislation in Gabon: An Excerpt from the 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study – A Review of Climate Change in 99 Countries. Retrieved from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/GABON.pdf Cite error: Invalid
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- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2019). The World Fact-book: Africa: Gabon. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gb.html
- Tracking SDG7. (2019). Gabon. Retrieved from: https://trackingsdg7.esmap.org/country/gabon
- African Energy Commission (AFREC). (2019). Africa Energy Database. Retrieved from: https://afrec-energy.org/Docs/En/PDF/2018/statistics_2018_afrec.pdf
- Africa Energy Portal (AEP). (2019). Retrieved from: https://africa-energy-portal.org/country/gabon
- Whiteman, A. Esparrago, J. Rueda, S. Elsayed, S. & Arkhipove, I. (2019). Renewable Energy Statistics 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/Mar/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2019.pdf
- BP. (2018). BP Statistical Review of World Energy. Retrieved from: https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/downloads.html