Publication - E-Mobility Solar Appliance Technology Brief

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Title
E-Mobility Solar Appliance Technology Brief
Publisher
Efficiency for Access
Author
Efficiency for Access
Published in
July 2021
Abstract
Electric mobility (e-mobility) encompasses transport modes that are battery-powered, eliminating the need for an internal combustion engine (ICE), that releases toxic particulate matter and carbon dioxide. Road vehicles, including buses, trucks, cars, 2 wheelers (2w) and 3-wheelers (3w) account for almost 18% of transport CO2 emissions globally. However, only 1 percent of all road vehicles are currently electric, highlighting the need for a rapid transition to e-mobility. 1 The use of

renewable energy for powering e-mobility solutions is critical to ensuring that the transition to electrified transport is clean and low- to zero-carbon. Micro-mobility, consisting of, but not limited to, 2w and 3w, is the fastest growing form of transport in emerging markets due to its small size and relative affordability.2 In fact, the 2w vehicle segment is set to be the second largest to be electrified globally.3 However, the electrification of micromobility is still nascent in many urban and rural areas of emerging economies, due to affordability barriers, a lack of infrastructure and unreliable energy systems.4 Data is limited across much of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, but some data on the progressive Indian market is more readily available and therefore has been presented in this brief.

Battery-powered e-mobility (comprised of a battery and electric motor-powered system) competes with hybrid and ICE vehicles. Batteries convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy through the flow of electrons. The electrical energy powers the motor, which is often connected to a gearbox that turns the wheels of the vehicle. The system offers energy savings of almost 83% compared to an ICE. The amount of energy stored per unit of battery volume, known as energy density, is crucial to ensuring that the performance of the vehicle can match that of an ICE vehicle. Advances in material chemistry have enabled batteries to be more energy dense, but production is costly. Smart batteries allow for advanced functioning of e-mobility solutions. They balance battery cell voltages and track temperature and charging rates to avoid stresses to the battery pack.6 The integration of this monitoring software can be used to harness data, not only on vehicle and battery usage, but also on charging, leasing and billing, which can reduce operational costs and increase productivity in the long term for all companies.

Permanent magnet (PM) motors are common in micro-emobility applications. They offer greater energy efficiency, performance and reliability than other electric motors. An electric motor requires a combination of around 20 parts compared to more than 200 parts for a petrol engine,7 reducing maintenance costs. More information on this technology can

be found in the PM Motors Technology Brief.
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