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|| Metal Demand for Renewable Electricity Generation in The Netherlands - Navigating a Complex Supply Chain
|| METABOLIC, Universiteit Leiden & Copper8
|| Pieter van Exter, Sybrean Bosch, Branco Schipper, Benjamin Sprecher & Rene Kleijn
| Published in:
|| December 2018
|| The current global supply of several critical metals is insufficient to transition to a renewable energy system. Calculations for the Netherlands show that production of wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) solar panels already requires a significant share of the annual global production of some critical metals.
Looking at the global scale, scenarios in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement require the global production of some metals to grow at least twelve-fold towards 2050, compared to today’s output. Specifically, the demand for neodymium, terbium, indium, dysprosium, and praseodymium stands out. This calculation does not include the demand for these specific metals in other applications, such as electric vehicles or consumer electronics.
This study, which is supported by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure warns that the renewable energy industry could be about to face a fundamental obstacle: shortages in the supply of rare metals.
- Climate Change
- Renewable Energy
|| link to the document |