Toolbox Entry: Recommendations for Trust and Encryption in DER Interoperability Standards

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Last edited on 27/11/2022 by Hector Alfaro
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General Information

ID Number
Main Author
Sandia National Laboratories
Publication Year
Type of Entry
Study Report

Information Exchange
  • Interoperability and communication
  • Cybersecurity
Which of the above categories best describe the material
Information exchange
Geographical Scope of the Publication
United States of America


Recently developed Distributed Energy Resource (DER) interoperability standards include communication and cybersecurity requirements. In 2018, the US national interconnection standard, IEEE 1547, was revised to require DER to include a SunSpec Modbus, IEEE 2030.5 (Smart Energy Profile, SEP 2.0), or IEEE 1815 (DNP3) communication interface but does not include any normative overarching cybersecurity requirements. IEEE 2030.5 and associated implementation requirements for California, known as the California Smart Inverter Profile (CSIP), prescribe the greatest security features—including encryption, authentication, and key management requirements. SunSpec Modbus and IEEE 1815 security requirements are not as comprehensive, leading to implementation questions throughout the industry. In this paper, (a) the elements of IEEE 2030.5 encryption, authentication, and key management guidelines are analyzed, (b) potential scalability gaps are identified, and (c) alternative technologies are explored for possible inclusion in DER interoperability or cybersecurity standards.