Bibliography- Energy, Development, Evaluation

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Household Economics



Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Countries
Recent Advances and Research Challenges
Straub, S.
World Bank
Policy Research Working Paper 4460
This paper presents a survey of recent research on the economics of infrastructure in developing countries. Energy, transport, telecommunications, water and
sanitation are considered. The survey covers two main set of issues: the linkages between infrastructure and economic growth (at the economy-wide, regional and
sectoral level) and the composition, sequencing and efficiency of alternative infrastructure investments.

Lightning Energy

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Improved Designs for Solar Rechargeable Lanterns
Development and Marketing in Development Countries
Crawley, K.
Holland, R.
Gitonga, S.

Journal of Energy in South Africa, Vol. 11 (2000), No. 4
This paper describes the process of market research and the trade-offs during product development and testing to produce a lantern that is affordable and reliable. The requirements of the battery, panel, charge regulator and lighting circuit are described and the critical process of mass marketing in rural areas is described.
Seven Centuries of Energy Services
The Price and Use of Light in the United Kingdom (1300 - 2000)
Fouquet, R.
Pearson, P.J.G.

This paper presents a survey of seven centuries of energy services within the UK. While emphasising the value of past experience, it also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
Rural Lighting Services
A Comparison of Lamps for Domestic Lighting in Developing Countries
Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.
van de Rijt, P.J.N.M.
Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.
van der Plas, R.J.

Outcomes are presented of a World Bank funded research project. Emphasis is on 12 volt DC lights suitable for solar home systems in developing countries. For comparison a number of traditional light sources have also been included. Based on the measurements a proposal is formulated for a luminous efficacy standard.

Business Plans

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Get Up Its Time
The Business Hand-Book for Uganda

Uganda Industrial Research Institute

Young people often lack the necessary skills to develop their business ideas, such as performing a market analysis, differentiating their product or service from the competition, preparing cash-flow statements and bookkeeping. This material has been developed to support young people with practical advice in the field.
REED Toolkit
A Handbook for Energy Entrepreneurs
Energy House

This Toolkit is a step-by-step guide to turning a clean energy business idea into a reality. The topics covered range from defining your personal and business objectives to preparing financial analyses and determining the distribution strategy. In addition to explaining what information is needed in an effective Business Plan, the Toolkit will help to gather that information, and then to present it in an informative and convincing manner. By the end, there is a Business Plan one can use to attract financing and to guide the growth of the company.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Financial structure in the Indian power sector

Carstairs, J.
Ehrhardt, D.

Energy Policy, Vol. 23 (1995), No. 11, pp. 981-990
In India, the private power initiative of 1991 has offered one solution to the financing problem - the private financing of generation against long-term power purchase agreements. However, this approach encounters a major problem, the financial weakness of the purchasing agents, the state electricity boards, that pay a dominant role in most state's power sectors. The article discusses the consideration of the factors that will affect the optimal capital structure for SEBs.
Enforcement, Regulation and Development

Laffont, J.

After discussing examples of enforcement failures for regulatory contracts in Africa, the article develops a regulation model with asymmetric information and imperfect enforcement. Either the regulator succeeds in forcing the regulated firm to fulfill the contract or renegotiation takes place.

Energy Services for the World's Poor

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Energy Services for the World's Poor

World Bank
World Bank

The report examines how a developing country government, concerned with tackling poverty among its citizens, should think about its role in the energy sector. Furthermore, it assesses the role energy policies and projects in alleviating poverty and asks what kinds of policies and projects are likely to have the most beneficial—and sustainable—impact. Finally, the World Bank report studies where energy sector policy advisers, similarly concerned with promoting development and improving the lot of the poor, should focus their efforts.

a) Energy services for the world's poor
b) Trends in private investment in the ergy sector (1990-1999)
c) Selected Readings and key contacts at the World Bank Group

Energy Demand of Households

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Rural Energy in Developing Countries
A Challenge for Economic Development
Barnes, D.F.
Floor, W.M.

Annual Review of Energy Environment 1996, pp. 497-530
This paper evaluates some successful programs and recommends that governments support market-oriented approaches that make the energy market equally accessible and attractive to local investors, communities, and consumers. According to the authors, such approaches ideally improve access to energy for rural and poor people by revising energy pricing and by making the first costs of the transition to modern and more sustainable uses of energy more affordable.
Energy Demand Analysis in Developing Countries
A Review
Bhatia, R.

Energy Journal, Vol. 8 (1987)
The paper provides and overview of energy demand analyses at the aggregate, sectoral and end-use levels. After discussing methodological aspects of aquisition and analysing data on energy demand, the authors review approaches to analyze changes in energy consumption, gives empirical insights and outlines few research issues.
Household Fuel Choice in Zimbabwe
An Empirical Test of the Energy Ladder Hypothesis
Hosier, R.H.
Dowd, J.

Resources and Energy, Vol. 9 (1987), pp. 347-361
The paper applies a multinomial logit formulation of the energy ladder to household energy-use data from Zimbabwe. The results show that although households do move away from wood to kerosene and electricity as their economic status improves, a large number of other factors are important in determining household fuel choice.
From Linear Fuel Switching to Multiple Cooking Strategies
A Critique and Alternative to the Energy Ladder Model
Masera, O.R.
Saatkamp, B.D.
Kammen, D.M.

World Development, Vol. 28 (2000), No. 12, pp. 2083-2103
In the paper the authors evaluate the energy ladder model utilizing data from a four-year (1992--96) case study of a village in Mexico and from a large-scale survey from four states of Mexico. They show that an alternate "multiple fuel" model of stove and fuel management based on the observed pattern of household accumulation of energy options, rather than the simple rogression depicted in the traditional energy ladder scenario, more accurately depicts cooking fuel use patterns in rural households.

Impact Evaluation Surveys

Title Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Monitoring and Evaluation in Rural Electrification Projects
A Demand-Oriented Approach
Barnes, D.F. et al.
World Bank

The goal of the report is to develop a demand-oriented approach or methodology to monitor and evaluate rural electrification projects. The methodology is intended to assist rural electrification programs in measuring the socioeconomic impacts of their projects, with a focus on poverty and gender implications. The result of the project is a research strategy and two different but complimentary methodologies that can be useful in design, implementation, and postproject assessment.
Energy for Development in Rural Bangladesh

Barnes, D.F. et al.
World Bank

The report advocates a welfare-based and growth-enabling strategy for promoting rural energy for development. There are two aspects to the strategy. The first is to satisfy the type of demand that increases household welfare while the second raises growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input in the production process.
Electricity and Sustainable Development
Impacts of Solar Home Systems in Rural Bangladesh
Blunck, M.

The paper presents the social impact evaluation of the Project “Fund for the Promotion of Micro Hydro Power Stations (MHSP)”, which was carried out by ITDG with the support of the Inter American Development Bank (IADB) through a Finance and Technical Cooperation Agreement. The study’s objectives range from the reconstruction of the implementation process over the identification of the direct and indirect impacts of the MHSP Project to the notion of the conceptual and operational aspects that may be relevant to the formulation of policies in the field of rural electrification.
Baseline Data Creation
Characterization of the Potential Clients of Future Electricity Service

The paper characterizes potential clients of a future electricity service including their energy demand patterns, end-uses, range of equipment stock, intensities and present expenditures in rural non-electrified towns and villages of Nigeria. The overall objectives of this specific task are to create a standardized template with baseline information that fully characterizes potential clients of a future electricity service from renewable energy systems in terms of socio-economic capability and energy patterns.
The Welfare Impact of Rural Electrification
A Reassessment of the Costs and Benefits
World Bank
World Bank

Rural electrification has been claimed to have substantial benefits, promoting production and better health and education. The report demonstrates rates of return on rural electrification projects are sufficient to warrant investments into rural electrification. Moreover, it shows that consumer willingness to pay for electricity is almost always at or above supply cost. Given these findings, the report argues that rural electrification is both an important goal and a feasible one.
The Economics of Rural Electrification Projects

Munasinghe, M.

Butterworth & Co Ltd
The paper focuses on the economics of rural electrification and project selection. A comprehensive analytical model for identifying benefits is presented and the practical problems of evaluation are described.
Ex Ante Poverty Impact Assessment


The sheet examines ex ante poverty impact assessment to promote pro-poor growth.
Energy Policies and Multitopic Household Surveys
Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in Living Standards Measurement Studies
Barnes, D.F.
O'Sullivan, K.
World Bank
Energy and Mining Sector Board Discussion Paper, No.17 (2006)
Accurate data on household energy use, combined with other data on household well-being (including consumption, income, health, and education), is essential to monitor progress in the household energy transition from traditional biomass fuels to modern fuels and electricity and to evaluate the effect of government energy policies on living conditions. The guidelines highlight weaknesses in current LSMS surveys with respect to energy questions and discuss how such questions can be better formulated to yield more useful data for energy policy analysis.
Evaluating a Targeted Social Program When Placement Is Decentralized

Ravallion, M.
Wodon, Q:
World Bank
Policy Research Working Paper 1945
An assessment of the welfare gains from a targeted social program can be seriously biased unless it takes proper account of the endogeneity of program participation. The authors argue that partial decentralization of program placement decisions creates control and instrumental variables useful for identifying program benefits.
National Domestic Biogas Programme Rwanda
Baseline Study Report
Huba, E.
Paul, E.
Ministry of Infrastructure, Rwanda
This report gives an overview on the Baselines Study "National Domestic Biogas Programme Rwanda"
Rural Electrification and Development in the Philippines
Measuring the Social and Economic Benefits
World Bank
World Bank

The study considers the quantitative value of electrification for rural consumers by moving beyond existing methods for evaluating rural electrification projects. It is discovered that qualitative data related to rural people’s strong desire for electrification can be used to support more quantitative analysis, thereby linking the electrification benefits that rural households value most to larger social processes.

Baseline China

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Bericht über Arbeitsaufenthalt im Projekt "Erneuerbare Energien in ländlichen Gebieten" in den Provinzen Qinghai und Yunnan (VR China)

Brühl, D.
Haskamp, S.
(ordered by)


Ganshu: Household-Base-line-study
Haskamp, S.
(ordered by)


REPRC China Monitoring for GTZ project "Renewable Energy in Rural Areas"
Monitoring-Questionnaire for the provinces Naqu
Brühl, D.
(ordered by)

VR China Base-line-study for GTZ project "Rural Infrastructure and Vocational Training"
Questionnaire for the Autonomous Region of Tibet

(ordered by)

Baseline Tanzania

Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Promotion of Renewable Energy in Tanzania
Haskamp, S.
Ingwe, A.
(ordered by)


EnPoGen Impacts Indonesia

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Impacts of Rural Electrification on Poverty and Gender in Indonesia
Vol. 2: Quantitative Survey, Methodology, Design and Frequency Results
Madon, G.
World Bank
Energy, Poverty and Gender
The report presents the results for Indonesia of a broader Energy, Poverty, and Gender study conducted in Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

Improving Access

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Accounting for Poverty in Infrastructure Reform
Learning from Latin America's Experience
Estache, A.
Foster, V.
Wodon, Q:
World Bank

This book explores the connections between infrastructure reform and poverty alleviation in Latin America based on a detailed analysis of the effects of a decade of reforms. It demonstrates that because the access to, and affordability of, basic services is still a major problem, infrastructure investment will be a core component of poverty alleviation programs in the region. The book shows that although affordability of service tariffs is often an issue, in many instances, access is a much more important concern in meeting the infrastructure needs of the poor. Thus, the authors conclude infrastructure provision is a key poverty-reduction tool.

Communal Models

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Model for empowering rural poor through renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh

Biswas, W.K.
Bryce, P.
Diesendorf, M.

Environmental Science and Policy
This paper proposes an integrated ecological, economic and social model to assist sustainable rural development in villages in Bangladesh. In the model, renewable energy technologies create income-generating activities for male landless and marginal farmers and for women from such households, while reducing environmental problems, like deforestation and indoor air pollution from cooking with poor-quality fuels. Against this background, the paper also covers aspects of micro-credit approaches and the role of village organizations.

Cost Reduction

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Cost Reduction Options forRural Electrification

Smith, N.
Leaning, C.

This paper presents brief summaries of a broad range of options that may reduce the cost of rural electrification implementation and operation in Nigeria.
Reducing the Cost of Grid Extension for Rural Electrification

World Bank

The focus of this study is to benchmark the cost of medium-voltage grid extension-of bringing power from a supply at point A to a load center at point B-and to then identify ways to reduce this cost and increase the attractiveness of grid extension as a means of bringing the benefits of electrification to rural populations.
Sub-Saharan Africa: Introducing Low-cost Methods in Electricity Distribution Networks

World Bank
ESMAP Technical Paper 104/06
The objective of this report is to help in reducing the high costs of electrification by documenting proven, low-cost methods and techniques in electricity networks that have not yet become widely used in sub-Saharan Africa. The report is based on studies related to innovations in Tunisia, Ghana, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and field visits by an expert group of technical specialists to Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda.
Impacts and Benefits of Prepaid Electricity Service in Botswana

Obok Opok, A.
Anderson, G.O.

This paper explores briefly both potential and reliazed benefits and impacts of the introduction of prepaid meters in electricity services, covering economic, technical and social aspects.
An Assessment of South African prepaid electricity experiment, lessons learned, and their policy implementations for developing countries

Tewari, D.D.
Shah, T.

Energy Policy
This study reviews the economics, logistics, and technology underlying the South African experiment of prepaid electricity. This experiment has resulted into benefiting large masses of small and dispersed consumers. The success of this program can be largely attributed to a number of factors, including a good marketing campaign, innovative tariff schedules, better planning and management, and so on.
International Experience with Low Cost Rural Electrification

Smith, N.

This paper provides a review of international experience with low-cost rural electrification, highlighting innovation and good practice that could be applicable to Nigeria. It draws mainly upon experiences from African countries as these are likely to be the most transferable.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Pricing in Public Enterprises
Faulhaber, G.
The American Economic Review, Vol. 65 (1975), No. 5, pp. 966-977 1975
This study examnies whether and how a proposed price structure for a multicommodity enterprise could favor the consumers of one commodity at the expense of the purchasers of another commodity, i.e. whether cross-subsidization occurs?
Alternative Energy in the Third World
A Reappraisal of Subsidies
Desai, A.V.
World Development, Vol. 20 (1992), No. 7, pp. 959-965 1992
Against the background of common undesirable impacts of subsidization, the paper studies the role of subsidized decentralized sources in remote areas to create dependable markets.
The role of energy susidies

Barnes, D.F.
Halpern, J.

in: Energy Services for the World's Poor (2000), ch. 7 2000
This chapter specifies 'good' and affordable subsidiy schemes enhancing access for the poor as well as sustaining incentives for efficient delivery and consumption
Subventionen und staatliche Beihilfen in Deutschland

Thöne, M.
FIFO-Reports, No. 4 2005
The report reviews different subsidy-definitions used in Germany and proposes a new, less arbitrary definition. Subsequently, the auhors develop a tool to compile the necessary data.
Eco-efficiency subsidies

GTZ GTZ in: Eco-Efficiency measures: A Compendium

World Energy Outlook
Looking at Energy Subdidies: Getting the Prices Right

This study focuses on energy subsidies that encourage overconsumption by keeping prices below cost. It assesses quantitatively the extent of energy subsidies and provides an indicative estimate of the potential gains from removing them — in terms of energy savings, lower carbon dioxide emissions, improved economic efficiency and reduced burdens on government budgets.
Energy subsidies and costs in urban Ethiopia
The cases of kerosene and electricity
Kebede, B.
Renewable Energy 2006
In this article, the significance of kerosene and electricity subsidies in relation to the purchasing power of Ethiopian urban households is examined. The results indicate that subsidies on kerosene prices and electricity tariffs do not significantly change the overall costs for households.
Private Rural Power

Harris, C. World Bank Public Policy for the Private Sector 2002
The case study examines network expansion by using an output-based scheme in Guatemala. In this context, it assess factors driving the performance of private companies in a variety of rural contexts and sectors and under diverse legal and regulatory arrangements.
Output-Based Subsidies for Access
Early Lessons for Practicioners from Three Recent Offgrid Electrification Projects in Latin America
Reiche, K.
Rysankova, D.
Goldmark, S.

This paper analyzes emerging lessons from three recent projects in Latin America which apply output-based concepts in order to increase access to electricity services in difficult, marginalized areas of Argentina, Bolivia and Nicaragua via innovative private sector-led offgrid business models. The three projects link subsidies to performance in different ways, to fit the respective project development objectives, the local market stage, the needs of small service providers and remote rural users and other project boundary conditions.
Water, Electricity and the Poor
Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?
World Bank World Bank
Drawing together empirical research across a wide range of countries, this book documents the prevalence and variants of consumer subsidies found in the developing world and presents a number of indicators that are useful in assessing the degree to which such subsidies benefit the poor. The findings are placed in a broader social protection framework where comparisons are drawn with povertyfocused programs in other sectors using a common metric.

Cross Subsidies

Title Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Economically defensible access pricing, competition and preservation of socially desirable cross subsidy

Baumol, W.J.

Utilities Policy, Vol. 10 (2001), pp. 151-159
The article describes and evaluates four principles that have been used or proposed to guide regulation of access to essential bottleneck facilities by competitors of the owner of those facilities: fully distributed cost, incremental cost, Ramsey pricing and parity pricing.
Testing viability of cross subsidy using time-variant price elasticities of industrial demand for electricity
Indian experience
Chattopadhyay, P.

Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 487-496
This paper investigates the viability of the Indian electric tariff policy characterized by very high rates for industrial and commercial classes to permit subsidized electric consumption by residential and agricultural customers.
Cross-Subsidy Analysis with more than two services

Faulhaber, G.

The purpose of this note is to address certain misperceptions regarding the proper interpretation and application of the principles of the author's paper “Cross-Subsidization:Pricing in Public Enterprises".
A Cross-Subsidy Classification Framework

Fjell, K.

Journal of Public Policy, Vol. 21 (2001), No. 3, pp. 265-282
This note discusses different definitions that regulators are likely to encounter, and based on these introduces a novel classification framework according to underlying motivation and consequences for competition.
Cross-subsidies and network expansion in developing countries

Laffont, J.
N'Gbo, A.

European Economic Review, Vol. 44 (2000), pp. 797-805
This paper provides a simple model to discuss the "nancing of network expansion n developing countries. It shows how infficient or corrupt tax systems a!ect the development of networks, and restore partially the relevance of cross-subsidies between rich and poor consumers for "nancing this development.


Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Designing output-based aid schemes A checklist Smith, W. World Bank
2000 This text develops a checklist for outpt-based aid schemes in developing countries, thereby emphasizing performance accountability, effiency and innovation.
Bidding for Concessions The Impact of Contract Design Klein, M.
Public Policy for the Private Sector, Note No. 158 1998 This series of notes on bidding for infrastructure concessions examines how concession design affects competition in bidding and the sustainability of the contract, whether to auction or negotiate, how to avoid the winner's curse and the case for periodic rebidding.
Infrastructure Concessions To auction or not to auction? Klein, M.
Public Policy for the Private Sector, Note No. 159 1998 This series of notes on bidding for infrastructure concessions examines how concession design affects competition in bidding and the sustainability of the contract, whether to auction or negotiate, how to avoid the winner's curse and the case for periodic rebidding.
Designing Auctions for Concessions Guessing the Right Value to Bid and the Winner's Curse Klein, M.
Public Policy for the Private Sector, Note No. 160 1998 This series of notes on bidding for infrastructure concessions examines how concession design affects competition in bidding and the sustainability of the contract, whether to auction or negotiate, how to avoid the winner's curse and the case for periodic rebidding.
Rebidding for Concessions
Klein, M.
Public Policy for the Private Sector, Note No. 161 1998 This series of notes on bidding for infrastructure concessions examines how concession design affects competition in bidding and the sustainability of the contract, whether to auction or negotiate, how to avoid the winner's curse and the case for periodic rebidding.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline

Private Sector Involvement

Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Developing Best Practices for Promoting Private Sector Investment in Infrastructure
Asian Development Bank Asian Development Bank
2000 This report develops best practices for promoting private sector participation and competition in the power sector. It examines the optimum approaches to achieve benefits for consumers of electricity through restructuring, unbundling and privatization.
Global Electric Power Reform, Privatization and Liberalization of the Electric Power Industry in Developing Countries
Bacon, R.W:
Besant-Jones, J.
World Bank
2002 This paper reviews the progress of the movement to privatize and liberalize the power sector in developing countries. It reviews the forces driving the movement and then describes the steps that should be taken to achieve success.
Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries What Have We Learned? Besant-Jones, J. World Bank
2006 This paper compiles the lessons of experience from the reforming power markets of developing countries and transition economies. It focuses on reforms that address the generally poor performance of power markets in developing countries. It also covers reforms in those developing countries with power markets that are performing reasonably well.
Energy privatisation and reform in East Africa
Hall, D.

2007 This paper reviews the experiences with electricity reforms and privatisation in three east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The first three sections review each country in turn, looking at the use of independent power producers and reforms in power generation,at the distribution systems and at major developments. A further section reviews the main multinational companies active in electricity in the region. In conclusion, the paper discusses some of the main themes emerging, including the issues of pricing policies; investment and the role of public finance, etc.
Private Participation in Infrastructure in Developing Countries Trends, Impacts, and Policy Lessons Harris, C. World Bank
2003 The report assesses the impact that the private provision of infrastructure has had on service delivery, and what the consequences for other important goals have been. Finally, it looks at the main policy lessons that can be drawn, and what governments have to do moving forward if they are to ensure that the supply of infrastructure services does not become a bottleneck to growth.
What International Investors Look For When Investing In Developing Countries
Lamech, R.
Saeed, K.
World Bank
2003 To capture international investors’ perceptions of the factors critical to the success or failure of their investments, based on their experience, the World Bank surveyed firms with international equity investments in developing country power sectors.
Power Sector Development in Africa
Mkhwanazi, X.

2003 The objective of this paper is to briefly outline the status of the African power sector, discuss some of the problems facing the sector; identify the technical and non technical barriers to electricity trade; identify strategies and policies to upgrade and modernize infrastructure; address the need to promote a regional and sub regional approach; and propose strategies and policies on power sector development.
Public and Private Sector Roles in the Supply of Electricity Services
World Bank World Bank
2004 This note provides guidance to World Bank Group staff on assessing the suitability of available options for public-private roles in the financing and provision of electricity, and the main steps which staff should take to analyze these options.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Lessons from the Independent Private Power Experience in Pakistan
Fraser, J.M. World Bank Energy and Mining Sector Board Discussion Paper, No. 14 2005 The discussion paper recounts the background to the Bank's IPP program in Pakistan, describes the “orderly framework” developed by the World Bank Group for the IPP workout, and concludes with several lessons learned.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Reform and Regulation of the Electricity Sectors in Developing Countries
Jamasb, T.

2002 This paper reviews and draws lessons from the reform experience in developing countries and argues that competition and regulatory reform are equally important to the success of reforms.

Productive Use

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Más que alimentos en la mesa La Real Contribución de la agricultura a la Economía Brathwaite, C.W.D. Grupo Interagencial de Desarollo Rural
2003 [Spanish]
This report quantifies the real contribution of the agricultural sector to economies in eleven American countries and finds an important impact on rural and urban incomes.
Productive Uses of Energy for Rural Development
Cabraal, R.A.
Barnes, D:F.
Agarwal, S.G.

Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 30 (2005), pp. 177-144 2005 This review utilizes working definition of “productive uses of energy,” which states “in the context of providing modern energy services in rural areas, a productive use of energy is one that involves the application of energy derived mainly from renewable resources to create goods and/or services either directly or indirectly for the production of income or value.” After summariing different views on productive uses of energy, linking of energy with several Millennium Development Goals are analyzed.
Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs An operational methodology de Gouvello, C.
Durix, L.
ESMAP/World Bank ESMAP Formal Report 332/08 2008 This paper argues that to be successful, rural electrification programs should target direct impact on livelihoods and revenue generation beyond the provision of connections and kilowatt-hours by implementing electricity projects that affect livelihoods and generate new revenues. The necessity and the modalities of this cooperation with other sectors are discussed and two approaches—the systematic approach and the pragmatic approach—to foster such cooperation are described in this paper. The systematic approach analyzes the technologies used in the production processes of goods and services in a specifi ed rural area. The pragmatic approach follows an opportunistic tactic, taking advantage of preexisting opportunities resulting from the ongoing or planned implementation of another project or program in a given area. It is implemented when conditions are ripe for a quick-win project that would provide rapid revenue-enhancing gains, thanks to access to electricity.Both the systematic and pragmatic approaches are being tested and implemented in Senegal, where they were initially developed and implemented within the Electricity Services in Rural Areas Project (ESRAP) co-fi nanced by the World Bank.
A Review of the Evidence and Case Studies in Rural China
World Bank World Bank Energy, Poverty and Gender 2003 The first section of the report is based on a review of field studies in the People's Republic of China. Following it is a general discussion of current approaches to poverty and gender issues, existing evidence on links between energy, poverty, and gender. The discussion centers on the “vicious circle” of energy poverty: The inability to buy improved energy supplies or equipment results in low productivity, low quality of outputs and an inability to release reproductive2 labor for economic activity, leading to low returns to investment and labor inputs, again limiting possibilities for energy investments.
Small Manufacturing Enterprises in Developing Countries
Little, I.M.D.
The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 1 (1987), No. 2, pp. 203-235 1987 This article examines aspects of the relationship between establishment size and the pattern and efficiency of factor use, and about the nature and effects of price differentials in factor markets with data from surveys of small manufacturing enterprises. The article also examines India's long-standing policy, unusual among developing countries, of providing special support and protection for small enterprises.
Identificación de las Aplicaciones Productivas de la Energía Eléctrica en Sitios Pilotos del Proyecto PERZA, Nicaragua
Mathieu, P.

2003 [Spanish]
This study indentifies new apllications of productive use of energy in selected sites in Nicaragua and wants to reveal new potentials concerning productivity and efficiency.
The Small-Scale Manufacturing Sector in Ghana A Source of Dynamism or of Subsistence Income? Mensah, J.V.
Tribe, M.
Weiss, J.

Journal of International Development, Vol. 19 (2007), pp. 253-273 2007 This study uses survey data from small-scale manufacturing enterprises in Ghana to examine factors affecting performance as well as economic dynamism.
Rural Electrification, Micro-finance and Micro and Small Business Development Lessons for the Nicaragua Off-grid Rural Electrification Project Motta, M.
Reiche, K.

2001 This paper outlines the key considerations for designing operations involving a combination of electrification, micro-finance, and business development services for micro and small businesses for developing the private sector in off-grid areas. By doing this, the paper provides a basis for the design of the Nicaragua Off-Grid Rural Electrification Project.
Rural nonagricultural activities in development Theory and application Ranis, G.
Stewart; F.

Journal of Development Economics, 40, pp. 75-101 1993 This paper focusses on the potentially important role of rural nonagricultural activity in the development process. Using the Hymer-Resnick Z-goods model as a point of departure, the authors first show that its pessimistic conclusions are based on rather restrictive assumptions as applied to the colonial period. They relax these assumptions, indicating the theoretical possibility of a
substantially more positive scenario for that period. Subsequently, we analyze the role of Zgoods, traditional and nontraditional, in the post-independence era, again distinguishing between archetypal pessimistic and optimistic cases. Finally, the comparative historical experience of the Philippines and Taiwan is brought to bear to illustrate the argument empirically.
How Inadequate Provision of Public Infrastructure and Services Affects Private Investment
Reinikka, R.
Svensson, J.
World Bank
1999 The authors use microeconomic evidence to show the effects of poor infrastructure services on private investment in Uganda. They find that poor public capital, proxied by an unreliable and inadequate power supply, significantly reduces productive private investments.
Modern Energy: Impacts on Micro-enterprises
DFID DFID Policy Research Working Paper 2262 2003 The objective of this document is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge with regard to the impacts of modern energy on micro-enterprise and to discuss the nature and extent of linkages that have been found to exist between modern energy and micro-enterprise activity.

Productive Use > Access to Markets

Title Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Promoting Market Access for the Rural Poor in order to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals IFAD IFAD

2003 This report first gives a breif overview over the Millennium Development Goals and the importance of markets for rural people. Subsequently, it reviews IFAD experiences and lessons learned and provides an outlook what to do to enable the rural poor to seize their opportunities and to overcome their constraints.
Access to Markets and the Benefits of Rural Roads Jacoby, H.G.

1998 This paper develops and implements a method for nonparametrically estimating the benefits from road projects at the household level using the relationship between the value of farmland and its distance to agricultural markets.
How important is modern energy for micro-enterprises? Kirubi, C.

In this study the author explores the relationship between modern energy and economically productive activities in rural Kenya. The findings reveal that access to electricity, in combination with simultaneous access to markets and other infrastructure (roads, communication, schools, etc), have contributed to robust growth of microenterprises in clear and compelling ways.

Business Development Services

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Business Development Services for Micro-Enterprises Harper, M.

This paper examines the issues surrounding delivery of non-financial business services, and the criteria for assessing their impact. The focus is on the needs of the smallest 'survival' businesses of the poor.
Developing commercial markets for BDS McVay, M.
Miehlbradt, A.O.

International Labour Office 2001 The purpose of this reader is to help donors, researchers and practitioners understand the latest thinking on BDS issues, and become familiar with the global experience that has contributed to current, best practice.
Synergies through Linkages Sievers, M.
Vandenberg, P.

World Development, Vol. 25 (2007), No. 8, pp. 1341-1358 2007 According to the authors, business services must be demand driven, managed in a sustainable manner, and diversified beyond management training. For success, linkages must provide benefits to the three key actors involved: enterprises, BDS providers, and micro-finance institutions. Thirty linked programs are analyzed using a six-part typology.
Training for the Urban Unemployed Wodon, Q.
Minowa, M.

1999 This paper suggests that recent evaluations of a large training program for the unemployed by the Government of Mexico may have suffered from inappropriate controls for the endogeneity of program participation. It therefore develops an alternative methodology and shows the ineffieciency of the program.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Evidence of Microfinance's Contribution to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Dunford, C.

2006 The report shortly sums up the main objectives and impacts of microfinance projects and gives evidence for the linkage to five Millennium Development Goals.
Microfinance: A View from the Fund IMF IMF

2005 This paper summarizes the Fund's view on microfinance by illuminating definitions and key issues as well as providing an overview of policy issues and the role of international finance institutions.
Micro-Finance and Poverty Khandker, S.R: World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2945
2003 The author addresses questions of effectiveness using household level panel data from Bangladesh. The findings confirm that micro-finance benefits the poorest and has sustained impact in reducing poverty among program participants.
The Effects of Microfinance Program Participation on Income and Income Inequality Mathew, R.P.

2006 This paper studies the effect of participation in microfinance programs on incomes using a regression model. The model found that there is a significant positive relationship between microfinance program participation and log income. It provides evidence that participation leads to 10% higher incomes in the participants.
Microfinance and the Millennium Development Goals World Bank World Bank

2002 This brief summarizes the results of recent professional studies on the impact of microfinance, recognizing the difficulties of comparing studies that apply different levels of methodological rigor.
The Microfinance Promise Morduch, J.
Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 37 (1999), No. 4, pp. 1569-1614
1999 In describing emerging tensions, the paper highlights the diversity of innovative mechanisms beyond group-lending contracts, the measurement of financial sustainability, the estimation of economic and social impacts, the costs and benefits of subsidization, and the potential to reduce poverty through savings programs rather than just credit. The promise of microfinance has pushed far ahead of the evidence, and an agenda is put forward for addressing critical empirical gaps and sharpening the terms of policy discussion.
Analysis of the Effects of Microfinance on Poverty Reduction Murdoch, J.
Haley, B.

2002 This executive paper examines the role of microfinance in poverty reduction strategies. After giving evidence for the positive impact of microfinance strategies, the authors rate these strategies against other development tools and reveal potential synergies.
Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor? Murdoch, J.

1998 Replications of the microfinance's flagship, the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh, have spread around the world. While programs aim to bring social and economic benefits to clients, few attempts have been made to quantify benefits rigorously. This paper draws on a new cross-sectional survey of nearly 1800 households, some of which are served by the Grameen Bank and two similar programs, and some of which have no access to programs.

Project Experiences

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
A Review of the Evidence and Case Studies in Rural China
World Bank World Bank Energy, Poverty and Gender 2003 The first section of the report is based on a review of field studies in the People's Republic of China. Following it is a general discussion of current approaches to poverty and gender issues, existing evidence on links between energy, poverty, and gender. The discussion centers on the “vicious circle” of energy poverty: The inability to buy improved energy supplies or equipment results in low productivity, low quality of outputs and an inability to release reproductive2 labor for economic activity, leading to low returns to investment and labor inputs, again limiting possibilities for energy investments.
Substudy 6: Options for productive use of energy in the villages of the Lokoho rural grid area
Lempelius, C. GTZ (inter alia)
2006 The study's concept development s based on the findings and reflects the observations of the „Rural Electricity Demand Study”, the “Baseline Survey”, “RESCO Business Model” and additional field research on existing financial institutions, and organisations or activities related to professional extension services, technical or entrepreneurial training and education. The concept is supposed to guide the GTZ decision to propose further Technical Assistance within the frame work of implementing the Lokoho small hydro power project and its rural electricity grid in the Andapa and Sambava district.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Productive uses of renewable energy A Review of Four Bank-GEF Projects Kapadia, K.

2004 This paper aims to analyze the World Bank’s approaches to promoting productive uses of renewables, with a view to providing recommendations to the Bank on strategy on this given topic. The goal is to highlight the need for more rigorous study of some of the issues raised.
A Study of Productive Uses of PV Electricity in Rural Areas of Kenya
World Bank World Bank
2006 This study is intended to assist in developing a strategy for promoting incomegenerating applications of stand-alone solar PV systems in Africa and developing countries. Its principle objectives are to catalog common PV productive uses in Kenya, to identify facilitative factors underlying the use of productive use systems and to identify strategies for promoting productive use in rural electrification projects.

Rural Electrification

Sibtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Summary of Best Practices and Grid Rural Electrification
Barnes, D.F.

2003 This short presentation is about problems linked to rural electrfication and best practices to solve them.
Energy for Development in Rural Bangladesh
Barnes, D.F. et al. World Bank

2006 The report advocates a welfare-based and growth-enabling strategy for promoting rural energy for development. There are two aspects to the strategy. The first is to satisfy the type of demand that increases household welfare while the second raises growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input in the production process.
Meeting the Challenge of Rural Electrification The Experience of Successful Programs Barnes, D.F. World Bank

2005 The pace of rural electrification over much of the developing world is painfully slow. In many African and South Asian countries, it is even lower than rural population growth. Well-publicized reports on the problems of some programs have also led to increasing wariness about rural electrification among energy policy makers.
This study focuses on the characteristics of those rural electrification programs that have been successful by examining the accomplishments and difficulties overcome to achieve success.
Technical and Economic Assessment of Off-Grid, Mini-Grid and Grid Electrification Technologies
ESMAP World Bank
ESMAP Technical Paper 121/07 2007 The purpose of this report is to convey the results of an assessment of the current and future economic readiness of electric power generation alternatives for developing countries. The objective of the technical and economic assessment is to systematically characterize the commercial and economic prospects of renewable and fossil fuel-fired electricity generation technologies now, and in the near future.
Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages
Haanyika, C.M.
Energy Policy, Vol. 34 (2006), pp. 2977-2993 2006 This article examines the extent to which the market-based reforms in the power sector of developing countries have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and gives informatio on developing appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. According to the author, It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas.
Electrifying Africa power through the public sector
Hall, D.

2007 According to the report, Africa needs electricity, not privatisation. Therefore, this report sets the record straight on the failures of privatisation in Africa. Instead it advocates policies based on proven successes.
Can the urban poor afford modern energy? The case of Ethiopia Kebede, B.
Bekele, A.
Kedir, E.

Energy Policy, Vol. 30 (2002), pp. 1029-1045 2002 Comparing rough measures of costs of using modern fuels and purchasing power of the urban poor in Ethiopia, this article finds that, while kerosene is relatively cheap even for the very poor, electricity is extremely expensive even for the relatively well to do. In addition, the article examines the relevance of the ‘energy ladder’ hypothesis. Finally, demand equations for each fuel are econometrically estimated and the elasticities are used to examine price and income effects.
Effectiveness of Botswana's Policy on rural electrification
Ketlogetswe, C.
Mothudi, T.H.
Mothibi, J.

Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 1330-1337 2007 This paper examines Botswana’s policy on energy supply with the view to confirm or deny any correlation between three factors (geographical set-ups of the communities, inappropriately conseived energy policies, low-income status of most rural inhabitants) and the low-levels of electrical connectivity in the country’s rural communities, as well as many others that may have impacted on this state of affairs. The policy is evaluated by undertaking a comparative study of its implementation on two seemingly geographical contrasting rural communities within the country.
The South African National Electrification Programme Past Lessons and Future Prospects Kotzé, I.A:

2000 South Africa embarked on an accelerated electrification programme in the early nineties. In the period 1994 to 1999 close on 2.8 million households were connected to the national electricity grid, increasing the electrification level from about 36% in 1994 to about 68% at the end of 1999. This report surveys the programme structure as well as it drawas main conclusions and develops an alternative to on-grid electrification.
Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa
Madubansi, M.
Shackleton, C.M.

Energy Policy, Vol. 34 (2006), pp. 4081-4092 2006 Following the democratic transition in South Africa in the early 1990s the government has implemented a widespread electrification programme, as well as introduced a free basic electricity allowance as a means of poverty alleviation. This study reports on the patterns of household energy use in five rural settlements in 1991 and again in 2002.
Die besten Methoden für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung von Mikro-Hydro-Anlagen in Entwicklungsländern

This study discusses the experience with micro-hydro plants in Sri Lanka, Peru, Nepal, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Its purpose is to derive best practices. The report encompasses an essential microeconomic analysis of costs and financial earnings of selected plants in the given countries.
Peri-Urban Electricity Consumers - A Forgotten but Important Group What Can We Do to Electrify Them? Floor, W.
Massé, R.
World Bank

2001 This paper concentrates only on the peri-urban population, because this group - according to the Bank - needs to be the priority target if they want to rapidly improve electrification in poor households. This is for several reasons: about forty percent of the world's poor live in peri-urban areas, while households in those areas are easier, and less expensive to electrify than un-served rural households. Moreover, promoting peri-urban electrification could be a win-win solution for utilities, and poor consumers, by preventing illegal connections through a well-planned electrification scheme, that will create a sound environment for a profitable, and expanding business, since peri-urban households are the potential future consumers of the utilities.
Rural Electrification: A Field for Social Research
Rose, J.K.
Rural Sociology, Vol. 5 (1940), pp. 411-426 1940 In this paper, the author examines several questions linked to rural electrification, e.g. if electrification increases farm income, what are the effects in tenant mobility and cityward migration and to what extent community structures are influenced.
Productivity Efficiency and Energy Use An Historical Perspective Schurr, S.H.
Annals of Operations Research, Vol. 2 (1985), pp. 229-238 1985 The paper discusses long-term trends in relationships between energy use and the overall productive efficiency of the American economy.
Rural Electrification Policy in South Africa Some Recommendations Thom, C.

1999 This paper presents recommendations on public policy concerning rural electrification in South Africa and includes national electrification priorities, means of enhancing the benefits of rural electrification and the financing.
Socio-Economic impacts of rural electrification in Namibia Comparisons between grid, solar and unelectrified households Wamukonya, N.
Davis, M.

Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 5 (2001), No. 3 2001 This paper reports on a study which compared the relative socio-economic impacts of the two technical approache solar home systems and grid extension conducted in Namibia where the government has promoted both options in its rural electrification programme.
Rural Energy and Development for Two Billion People
World Bank World Bank
1996 This brochure describes the plight of the two billion people without access to modern forms of energy, such as electricity and oil, and summarizes the many ways in which their situation can be improved.
Rural Electrification and Development in the Philippines Measuring the Social and Economic Benefits World Bank World Bank

2002 The study considers the quantitative value of electrification for rural consumers by moving beyond existing methods for evaluating rural electrification projects. It is discovered that qualitative data related to rural people’s strong desire for electrification can be used to support more quantitative analysis, thereby linking the electrification benefits that rural households value most to larger social processes.
Rural Electrification
Zomers, A.N.

2001 The objective of this PhD thesis, which is performed from an utility perspective, is to identify and assess relevant trends, to look ahead to opportunities for electricity supply to rural and remote areas, and to translate the results into recommendations for decision makers. The publication seeks to complement existing literature and to act as a vehicle to transfer specific managerial know how and, in particular, know why.
Power Sector Reform and the Implications for Rural Electrification
Zomers, A.N.

2007 This paper discusses some aspects of the ongoing reform of the power sector and its implications for the electrification of rural and remote areas in the developing world, where the majority of the energy poor live.
Electric Power for Rural Growth How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries Barnes, D.F.
Westview Press / Boulder and London 1988 This book assesses the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities.

Off-Grid Electrification

Subtitle Author Institution Juornal/Publisher Date Outline
Netzgebundene Stromerzeugung auf Basis erneuerbarer Energien
Drillisch, J. GTZ
2004 Thsi document is a product information highlighting the use of on-grid electrification in developing countries based on wind power and hydropower.
Alternatives to grid extension for rural electrification Dencentralized renewable energy technologies in Vietnam Nguyen, K.O.
Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 2579-2589 2007 This paper examines the economic viability of stand-alone, household-sized renewable energy technologies, namely wind generator and solar PV for application in remote and rural areas of Vietnam. Three reference technologies are chosen: two solar PV systems in the North and the South and one wind turbine.
Expanding Electricity Access to Remote Areas Off-Grid Rural Electrification in Developing Countries Reiche, K.
Covarrubias, A.
Martinot, E.
World Bank
2000 This paper presents emerging design issues regarding off-grid electricity service, including new business models and, least cost options for village power, as well as initial lessons learned from rural off-grid concessions in Argentina and twelve solar home system projects.
 Review of the multifunctional platform in Mali
Brew-Hammond, A.
Crole-Rees, A.
2004 This report reviews experiences of the multifunctional platform project in Mali and documents how modern energy services affect people’s lives in terms of income, education, and rural women’s status and health. In addition to showing on-theground evidence, this report presents analytical insights into key factors affecting the relationship between energy services and development outcomes.

Off-Grid Rural Electrification in Developing Countries

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Rural Battery Charging Systems - Re-Engineered
Böhmke, H.

This paper gives brief information on field experience with village photo voltaic-charging concepts.
Photovoltaic Residential Electrification A Case Study on Solar Battery Charging Stations in Brazil dos Santos, R.R:
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 9 (2001), pp. 445-453 2001 An analysis of the annual costs of Solar Battery Charging Systems indicates that they are more expensive alternative than solar home systems owing to the shorter lifetime of batteries. Moreover, battery transport for recharging and lower energy capacity make users opt for the added convenience of a solar home system. A financial analysis of a general case study is presented, with battery charging systems and home systems designed to offer equal electricity services.
Rural Electrification Using Photovoltaic Battery Charging Stations A Performance Study in Northern Thailand Sriuthaisiriwong, Y
Kumar, S.

Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 9 (2001), pp. 223-234 2001 Most users of the solar battery charging systems have changed their lighting system from wood and kerosene to battery-powered lamps, and find the system useful. According to the author, the major malfunctioning component is the charge controller. The efficiency seems to be low, owing to the loss of opportunity of using small (6 V) batteries and not using the system throughout the daytime. Some do not use the system owing to specific reasons (cost, battery performance, distance of systems from home). Therefore, the author regards training and an organisational set up to take care of the system as important if the performance is to be increased.
Solar Battery Charging Stations An Analysis of Viability and Best Practices SGA Energy Limited World Bank (report to)
1999 This study of Solar Battery Charging Stations was carried out to determine the economic attractiveness of the rural electrification alternative and the emerging best practices.The study is based on secondary research of battery-charging literature, discussion with specialists and empirical research at battery charging system sites and program offices in four countries.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Energy and Economic Welfare Cost-Benefit Analysis of Micro-Hydro Systems in Nepal Ghorkali, S.P.
IEE Working Papers 179 2005 This thesis has been prepared to assess the economic desirability of micro-hydro systems in Nepal.
As there is a high potential for the utilization of hydropower in Nepal and considering that the rural communities are isolated and scattered, micro-hydro systems serve as a viable alternative to enhance economic welfare. The promotion of the micro-hydro system is expected not only to enhance people’s welfare but also to positively impact social welfare through improvements in health and education. In terms of economic welfare, energy from micro-hydro systems is expected to be beneficial for both producers and consumers in rural economies via the opportunities to create links between them and the national economy.
Village Electrification
Widmer, R.
Arter, A.

MHPG Series, Vol. 5 1992 In ist first part, this book identifies 'Energy Entrepreneurs' and 'Machine Makers' as the key to using market mechanisms to promote rural electrification in developing countries. The following parts list some technical aspects of an electrification and discuss commercial, financial and legal aspects. Finally, some weight is given to experience in Nepal.
Guideline for Operation, Repair, Maintenance and Management Of Micro-Hydro Projects

2000 This guideline has been prepared to assist scheme managers and operators in operation, repair, maintenance and management of micro-hydro schemes so as to ensure optimum returns on the investment for investors and a greatly increased sense of satisfaction for customers. Specific objectives of the guideline are to provide guidance on management of the scheme, operation of the plant, maintenance of the plant and repair of the plant.
Evaluation of the Strategic and Replicable Aspects of the IDB-ITDG Fund for the Promotion of Micro Hydro Plants in Perú
Tarnawiecki, D.

2005 At first, this study gives information on promotion and management models of micro hydro plants and covers some economic aspects, such as energy demand and investment costs. After describing different financing possibilities, the impact of the project is evaluated.


Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
Evaluation, Erprobung und Weiterentwicklung von PV-Systemen in Indonesien
Preiser, K.
Schweizer-Ries, P.
Kuhmann, J.
Adib, R.
BMBF (ordered by)
2000 This paper is the final report for the joint project with solar systems in Indonesia and presents experience, lessons learned as well as some technical aspects.
Entwicklung durch Energiesysteme Solarstromsysteme zur ländlichen Elektrifizierung Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH

This info brochure gives provides technical information on photovoltaic systems.
Photovoltaic Technology Markets, Economics, and Rural Development Erickson, J.D.
Chapman, D.

World Development, Vol. 23 (1995), No. 7, pp. 1129-1141 1995 This paper investigated the motives, economics and development implications of PVs in rural electrification, drawing on field research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a PV rather than investing in further PV research and development are explored.
Photovoltaic Applications in Rural Areas in the Developing World
ESMAP World Bank
ESMAP Technical Paper 009 2000 The report provides much useful data and information on the PV technology and its market niche in the developing world. It begins by reviewing PV components and systems, outlining the issues of rural energy and discussing both PVs and conventional rural electrification as potential answers to the problems. The report highlights market niches most appropriate for PVs and reviews the lessons of experience of several PV programs. It concludes with a discussion of the role of governments and funding agencies and how they can best develop and implement PV programs.
Connective Power Solar Electrification and Social Change in Kenya Jacobson, A.
World Development, Vol. 35 (2007), No. 1, pp. 144-162 2007 This article revolves around three main claims about solar electrification in Kenya’s unsubsidized market: (1) The benefits of solar electrification are captured primarily by the rural middle class, (2) Solar electricity plays a modest role in supporting economically productive and education-related activities, but “connective” applications such as television, radio, and cellular telephone charging often receive a higher priority, (3) Solar electrification is more closely tied to increased television use, the expansion of markets, more rural–urban communication, and other processes that increase rural–urban connectivity than to poverty alleviation, sustainable development, or the appropriate technology movement.
Renewable energy strategies for rural Africa Is a PV-led renewable energy strategy the right approach for providing modern energy to the rural poor ob sub-Saharan Africa? Karekezi, S.
Kithyoma, W.

Energy Policy, Vol. 30 (2002), pp. 1071-1086 2002 This article reviews emerging trends in the rural energy sector in sub-Saharan Africa, and discusses the limitations of over-reliance on solar PV. It suggests possible options that could have greater impact on rural energy development (e.g. more efficient use of biomass).
World Bank/GEF solar home system projects Experiences and lessons learned 1993-2000 Martinot, E.
Cabraal, A.
Mathur, S.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 5 (2001), pp. 39-57 2001 Twelve projects provide energy services to off-grid rural households in developing countries by enhancing markets for solar home systems and by removing barriers to their dissemination. Project approaches are reviewed, along with early implementation experience and lessons suggested by experience.
Putting solar home system programmes into perspective What lesons are relevant? van der Vleuten, F.
Stam, N.
van der Plas, R.

Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 1439-1451 2007 This paper focuses on the lessons that can be learned from the implementation of solar home systems in Africa. Some of the questions answered are: Have policy makers and donors supported SHSs in an efficient way? Are they a luxury item or an essential element in the development process? Can they trigger or facilitate rural electrification?
Solar home system electrification as a viable technology option for Africa's development
Wamukonya, N.
Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 6-14 2007 This paper is based on a review of the effectiveness of solar home systems (SHS) in Africa in meeting users expectations on a service based analytical approach. A close review of the actual cost of these systems given the services they provide indicates most of the promises remain unmet and hence questions the wisdom of using public funds to support the system at the expense of more appropriate technologies.
Best Practices for Photovoltaic Household Electrification Programs Lessons from Experiences in Selected Countries Cabraal, A.
Cosgrove-Davies, M.
Schaeffer, L.
World Bank
1996 Governments across the developing world have made rural electrification a high priority over the last two decades. Yet despite the rapid expansion of the power sector during this period, by 1990, only about 44 percent of the more than 3.3 billion people living in rural areas had access to grid-based electricity. This paper hence argues that given the constraints of high capital costs and maintenance, there is little chance of achieving universal rural electrification through conventional grid services.
REED Toolkit A Handbook for Energy Entrepreneurs Energy House

This Toolkit is a step-by-step guide to turning a clean energy business idea into a reality. The topics covered range from defining your personal and business objectives to preparing financial analyses and determining the distribution strategy. In addition to explaining what information is needed in an effective Business Plan, the Toolkit will help to gather that information, and then to present it in an informative and convincing manner. By the end, there is a Business Plan one can use to attract financing and to guide the growth of the company.

Electricity Supply

Subtitle Author Institution Journal/Publisher Date Outline
The dark continent Electricity in Africa Economist
Economist, August 18th, 2007 2007 This article deals with the role of power shortages as one of the biggest brakes on development.
Strategies for regional integration of electricity supply in West Africa
Gnansounou, E.
Bayem, H.
Bednyagin, D.
Dong, J.

Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 4142-4153 2007 This paper examines the long-term prospects for integrated development of the regional electricity industry and evaluates its advantages by using PLANELEC-Pro, a ‘‘bottom-up’’ electricity system expansion planning optimisation model. The evolution of regional electricity market is analysed on the basis of two strategies. The ‘‘autarkical’’ strategy consists in adequate expansion of national power generation systems and the exchanges of electricity between the countries in sub-zones. Another approach referred to as ‘‘integration’’ strategy is recommended in this article. It leads to fast retirement of the obsolete power plants and the integration of new investment projects at the level of whole West African sub-region.
Electricity Information 2007
2007 This IEA report brings together in one volume the basic statistics compiled by the IEA on electricity and heat production. It also includes information on installed capacity, consumption, trade
and prices.
Effects of regulatory reforms in the electricity supply industry on electricity prices in developing countries
Nagayama, H.
Energy Policy, Vol. 35 (2007), pp. 3440-3462 2007 Electric power sector reforms in the electricity supply industry have had an impact on industrial and household prices in developing countries in Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Using original panel data for 83 countries during the period from 1985 to 2002, the authors examine how each policy instrument of the reform measures influenced electricity prices for countries in the above regions.

Further Information

  • The New Zealand Digital Library contains a great quantity of useful information
  • The Humanity Development Library is a of some thousand books. Under SKAT all SKAT MHPG GATE publications are online available in an editable form. Everybody can access them without requiring an international credit card.
  • All articles on energypedia related to "research"