Overview "Energy and Landscape"
- Explaining the Landscape Approach
The Landscape Approach is a framework for the management of land and land-uses in a integrated and holistic fashion. The genre of “landscape approaches” arose in response to the trade-offs that need to be made between conservation and development objectives. The landscape approach recognises the need to address the priorities of people who live and work within the landscapes concerned even when they conflict with the traditional goals of conservation. Non-alignment between these two sets of objectives has historically posed a problem with no clear definitive formulations.
The approach recognises that prevailing jurisdictional boundaries and fragmented administrative systems are mismatched with the multifunctionality of landscapes. At its heart, the framework strives to move beyond this segregated land administration, which fails to acknowledge the profound interconnections and mutual interests that exist between land uses. Land governance can only be optimised if governing structures match the sets of overlapping ecological, socio-cultural and economic networks that constitute a landscape, with decision-making moving from hierarchical silos to complex, adaptive and inclusive network structures.
- What is the Global Landscape Forum?
The Global Landscapes Forum (GLF) is a movement that puts communities first in addressing landscape-level issues. Having connected 3,000 organizations and 25,000 people through summits in Warsaw, Lima, London, Paris, Marrakech and Jakarta, along with a further 32 million online, the GLF has become the world’s largest science-led platform on sustainable land use.
With science and traditional knowledge at the core, GLF outreach, events and projects are designed not only to spark dialogue, but also follow-through to impact in addressing some of the most complex and multi-stakeholder problems facing our earth and our communities.
Recognizing the multitude of diverse objecties found in landscapes - food, livelihoods, health, energy, biodiversity, business development, trade, climate regulation and water - and the need for holistic approaches, the GLF is founded on four principles, aiming to engage 1 billion people: connecting, sharing, learning and acting.
Energy Technologies and Landscapes
Energy production and consumption are key aspects of a landscape and an essential component of the balance between human prosperity and environmental conservation. Managed effectively, and supported by an inclusive and empirical dialogue, energy production can alleviate poverty and achieve other socio-economic goals without impacting the environment. Mismanaged, however, energy can permanently degrade landscapes.
A comparison between the two largest hydroelectric powerstations in the world (which are also the largest powerstations of any kind in the world), the Three Gorges Dam in China and the Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay, is instructive. The Three Gorges Dam has been widely criticised for the human and environmental consequences of its construction, which include significant landslides and the displacement of over 1.3 million people, with that number increasing as degradation continues. The Itaipu Dam, however, integrated a plan to create a buffer around the edge of the reservoir, reducing erosion and encouragin water to filter through the soil naturally. Although farmers have migrated to the area to benefit from new, irrigated territories, a reforestation project has also been delivered to revive and maintain ecosystems. The measures taken to mitigate the negative effects of the Itaipu Dam, which are typical of hyroelectric power generation, are an example of the Landscape Approach in action: a broad range of multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder initiatives based on an explicit acknowledge of social, economic and environmental concerns.
The Ten Principles of the Landscape Approach
- Continual learning and adaptive management: Landscape processes are dynamic. Despite the underlying uncertainties in causes and effects, changes in landscape at- tributes must inform decision-making. Learning from outcomes can improve management. Nonlinear relationships, external shocks, and unforeseen interactions and thresholds imply neverending potential for surprise. Each surprise is an opportunity for learning, leading to the development of new under- standings as a basis for revised strategies. This learning and revision requires con- tinual adjustment in which new knowledge is derived from multiple sources. Adaptive management and, more recently, “adaptive collaborative management” have emerged as practical approaches to this process of continual learning.
- Common concern entry point: Solutions to problems need to be built on shared negotiation processes based on trust. Trust emerges when objectives and values are shared. However, stakeholders have different values, beliefs, and objectives. Totally aligned objectives are unlikely, costly to establish, or devoid of immediate significance. Identifying immediate ways forward through addressing simpler short-term ob- jectives can begin to build trust. Each stakeholder will only join the process if they judge it to be in their interest. Initially achieving consensus on overarching objec- tives may be difficult. Launching the process by focusing on easy-to-reach intermediate targets may provide a basis for stakeholders to begin to work together. In working toward this first goal, there will be opportunities for shared learning. The process will build the confidence and the trust needed to address further issues. Forest landscape negotiations in California and the Pacific Northwest of the United States illustrate how in- cremental progress can be made toward shared goals.
- Multiple scales: Numerous system influences and feedbacks affect management outcomes, but these impacts unfold under the influence of a diverse range of external influences and constraints. Outcomes at any scale are shaped by processes operating at other scales. Influences include feedback, synergies, flows, in- teractions, and time lags, as well as external drivers and demands. An awareness of these higher and lower level processes can improve local interventions, inform higher-level policy and governance, and help coordinate ad- ministrative entities. Studies by Ostrom in various sites illustrate the importance of ad- dressing multiple scale issues.
- Multifunctionality: Landscapes and their components have multiple uses and purposes, each of which is valued in different ways by different stakeholders. Tradeoffs ex- ist among the differing landscape uses and need to be reconciled.
Many landscapes provide a diverse range of values, goods, and services. The landscape approach acknowledges the various tradeoffs among these goods and services. It addresses them in a spatially explicit and ecosystem-driven manner that reconciles stakeholders’ multiple needs, preferences, and aspirations. The difficulties of quantifying and managing the interactions among these multiple func- tions have been extensively studied in the European Union.
- Multiple stakeholders: Multiple stakeholders frame and express objectives in different ways (principle 2). Failure to engage stakeholders in an equitable manner in de- cision-making processes will lead to sub- optimal, and sometimes unethical, outcomes. All stakeholders should be recognized, even though efficient pursuit of negotiated sol- utions may involve only a subset of stake- holders. Solutions should encompass a fair distribution of benefits and incentives.
Developing a landscape approach requires a patient iterative process of identifying stakeholders and recognizing their concerns and aspirations. Progress requires com- munication, which needs to be developed and nurtured, and mutual respect of values is essential. There is often a need to address conflicts, and issues of trust and power. Stakeholders and their concerns are not static but will change. Although many management agencies aspire to involving all stakeholder groups in decision-making, the transaction costs of doing this comprehen- sively can be prohibitive and total agree- ment can be elusive.
- Negotiated and transparent change logic: Trust among stakeholders is a basis for good management and is needed to avoid or resolve conflicts. Transparency is the basis of trust (principle 2). Transparency is achieved through a mutually un- derstood and negotiated process of change and is helped by good governance. The need to coordinate activities by di- verse actors requires that a shared vision can be agreed upon. This requires a broad con- sensus on general goals, challenges, and con- cerns, as well as on options and opportuni- ties. All stakeholders need to understand and accept the general logic, legitimacy, and jus- tification for a course of action, and to be aware of the risks and uncertainties. Build- ing and maintaining such a consensus is a fundamental goal of a landscape approach (principle 2). Numerous attempts to secure consensus around major tropical land con- version projects and the widespread use of the principle of free, prior, and informed consent illustrate the potential and the difficulties of reaching broad agreement on such issues.
- Clarification of rights and responsibilities: Rules on resource access and land use shape social and conservation outcomes and need to be clear as a basis for good management. Access to a fair justice system allows for conflict resolution and recourse. The rights and responsibilities of different actors need to be clear to, and accepted by, all stakeholders. Clarification of conflicting claims will require changes, ideally negoti- ated, that may be legal or informal. When conflict arises, there needs to be an accepted legitimate system for arbitration, justice, and reconciliation. Recent decades have seen major changes in the mandates and man- agement cultures of natural resource man- agement agencies. Clarifying rights and responsibilities is now replacing the com- mand-and-control approach. Facilitation and negotiation are emerging as the core business of resource management agencies.
- Participatory and user-friendly monitoring: information can be derived from multiple sources. To facilitate shared learning, information needs to be widely accessible. Systems that integrate different kinds of information need to be developed. When stakeholders have agreed on desir- able actions and outcomes, they will share an interest in assessing progress. In a landscape approach, no single stakeholder has a unique claim to relevant information, and the val- idity of different knowledge systems must be recognized. All stakeholders should be able to generate, gather, and integrate the informa- tion they require to interpret activities, progress, and threats (principle 1). The gath- ering and interpretation of information is a vital part of developing and updating the “theories of change” on which the landscape approach is based (principle 6). Participa- tory monitoring in the Sangha Tri-National Landscape as part of the Congo Basin Forest Partnership has demonstrated how local stakeholders and government agencies can learn and adapt together.
- Resilience: Wwholesale unplanned system changes are usually detrimental and undesirable. System-level resilience can be increased through an active recognition of threats and vulnerabilities. Actions need to be promoted that address threats and that allow recovery after perturbation through improving capacity to resist and respond. Perturbations impinge on all landscapes and their social and ecological structures. Maintaining and bolstering resilience, which is the capacity to avoid or deflect such threats and to absorb and recover from their manifestations, is vital to sustain processes and benefits in the longer term. Factors that contribute to system resilience are diverse and reflect ecological, social, and institutional attributes. Resilience may not be well understood in every situation, but can be improved through local learning and through drawing lessons from else- where (principles 1 and 10). The challenge in agricultural landscapes is often to bring about transformational change while main- taining the attributes of the landscape that provide resilience to undesirable changes.
- Strengthened stakeholder capacity: people require the ability to partici- pate effectively and to accept various roles and responsibilities. Such participation pre- supposes certain skills and abilities (social, cultural, financial).
Effective participation makes demands of stakeholders. The complex and changing nature of landscape processes requires competent and effective representation and institutions that are able to engage with all the issues raised by the process. The learning process of the landscape approach is one means by which stakeholders can improve their capacity to judge and respond. It also provides a platform to share experi- ences within and among sites. The prolifer- ation of local nongovernmental organizations addressing rural issues is a reflection of this and is recognized by the increasing will- ingness of development assistance agen- cies to support local civil society groups.
- Global Landscapes Forum
- Landscape Forum 
- ↑ In this article submitted to Forest News, the news website of the Centre for International Forestry Research, Terry Sutherland explains the concept of Landscape Approaches https://forestsnews.cifor.org/23834/landscape-approach-defies-simple-definition-and-thats-good?fnl=en
- ↑ http://www.globallandscapesforum.org/about/what-is-glf/
- ↑ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_largest_power_stations
- ↑ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-13451528
- ↑ https://news.globallandscapesforum.org/26746/around-itaipu-dam-restoring-forests-replenishes-water-invigorates-livelihoods/
- ↑ Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses (Sayer J.A.; Sunderland, T.C.H.; Ghazoul, J.; Pfund, J.L.; Sheil, D.; Meijard, E.; Venter, M.; Boedhihartono, A.K.; Day, M.; García, C.; Van Oosten, C.; Buck, L.E.) https://www.cifor.org/library/4136/ten-principles-for-a-landscape-approach-to-reconciling-agriculture-conservation-and-other-competing-land-uses/?pub=4136
- ↑ http://www.globallandscapesforum.org
- ↑ https://news.globallandscapesforum.org