Namibia Energy Situation

From energypedia


Namibia
Flag of Namibia.png
Location _______.png

Capital:

Windhoek

Region:

Coordinates:

22.5700° S, 17.0861° E

Total Area (km²): It includes a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

824,290

Population: It is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin.

2,540,916 (2020)

Rural Population (% of total population): It refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

48 (2020)

GDP (current US$): It is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

10,699,926,683 (2020)

GDP Per Capita (current US$): It is gross domestic product divided by midyear population

4,211.05 (2020)

Access to Electricity (% of population): It is the percentage of population with access to electricity.

55.20 (2019)

Energy Imports Net (% of energy use): It is estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

74.44 (2014)

Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption (% of total): It comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products.

66.72 (2014)

Source: World Bank



Additional information on Namibia on energypedia:
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Energy Access
  • 04- Namibia's rural electricity access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019).PNG
  • 03- Namibia's urban electricity access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019).PNG
  • 02- Namibia's total electricity access 1990-2017 (Tracking SD7, 2019).PNG
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Introduction

Namibia lies in the southern part of the African continent. It borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Angola to the north, Zambia to the north-east, Botswana to the east, and South-Africa to both south-east & south.


Namibia's Energy Profile Map (Lund & Mabirizi, 2017)


Energy Situation

Overview of the Country's Energy Sources

Namibia's top energy sources are petroleum, hydropower, imported electricity, and imported coal[1]. The country's own internal resources supply less than one-third of its needed energy requirements[2]


Namibia has high potential for solar, wind and biomass generation[1]. Invade bush is widely spread in the country's northern parts, which allows a large scale bioenergy-based production capacity[3][1].


Invader bush protected area in Namibia


The country is also on the top 10 listed countries, which are in possession of uranium resources worldwide, and it solely supplies about 8.2% of the global uranium production[3].



Energy Access

There are around 1 million Namibians lack access to electricity, which means that almost half of the country is without access at all (~53% has access & ~47% has no access)[4][5].


Namibia's total electricity access 1990-2017 (Tracking SD7, 2019)


Namibia's urban electricity access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Namibia's rural electricity access 1990-2017 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)

Projection scenarios

A 2019 report identifies that by 2030 still 36% of Namibians will still not have access to modern energy under the Business-as-Usual (BaU) (= "New Policies" Scenario of the International Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook 2018), while 32% will have access to the grid, 11% to a mini-grid and 22% to a SHS. The investment needs in a BaU scenario are higher (and emission reduction potentials lower) compared to a progressive Off-grid scenario (lower TIER case). That scenario estimates the impact of fully favourable off-grid (Mini-Grid and Solar Home Systems) frameworks through the integration of maximized ESMAP’s RISE Indicators into the model’s calculations. Under that scenario, Namibia would be electrified solely by mini-grid (43%) and SHS (57%). While the investmes needed for a higher Tier case are estimated as 600 million USD (prOG) compared to 400 million USD for the BaU, for a lower TIER case investments are even lower in the proOG (220 million USD) compared with almost 300 million in the BaU. (The GHG emissions are in both cases less than half of the BaU.)[6]


Production

Table: Namibia's Total Energy Production from Different Sources 2000-2018[7]
Source Unit 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Charcoal Kt 72 102 135 145 161 161 161 163
Hydroelectricity GWh 1380 1658 1227 1485 1502 1396 1416 1436
Electricity GWh 1414 1709 1300 1517 1555 1505 1530 1557


Installed Capacity

Namibia's total energy supply from different sources (IEA, 2019)


Consumption

Namibia's average consumption rate surpasses 3000 GWh/year, while its generation capacity is around 1305 GWh/year[1]. Therefore, there is a supply gap, which is covered by importing power from South-Africa, Zambia, and Mozambique[1].


Table: Namibia's Final Energy Consumption of Different Sources 2000-2018[7]
Source Unit 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Coal Kt 0 0 26 161 179 181 184 186
Oil Kt 400 460 815 913 1195 1770 1868 1994
Natural Gas TJ 0 722 2925 3866 6390 6099 6233 6383
Electricity GWh 2078 9079 10536 11724 11358 11384 12244 13203


Most of the final consumed energy goes to the country's transport sector[1].


Namibia's total final energy consumption of different resources 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Import and Export

Table: Namibia's Oil Products' Imports 2000-2018[7]
Year 2000 2005 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Imported Oil Capacity (Kt) 534 501 1337 1024 1171 1941 2098 2283


Namibia's net energy imports 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Namibia's coal imports 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Electricity

Namibia's generated electricity comes mainly from:

  • the 240 MW hydroelectric power plant on the Kunene river in Ruacana,
  • the 120 MW van Eck coal-powered plant north of Windhoek,
  • the Paratus 24 MW heavy fuel-oil powered plant in Walvis Bay,
  • the 5.78 MW solar plant in Trekkopje in the Erongo region. [2].

The Ruacana hydrowpower plant is a run‐of‐river station. The amount of power generated depends on the water flows from Angola. In case of insufficient flows, power generation is low.

The installed electrical generation capacity is insufficient to meet the demand for electricity. Therefore, Namibia is importing large amounts of electricity from neighboring countries mainly South-Africa. The crossborder transmission lines have a capacity of 600 MW. Another transmission line is presently built, extending the transmission system to Zambia and Zimbabwe and will have another additional capacity of 600 MW.


Table: Namibia's Electricity's General Indicators 2015-2016[4]

Production Consumption Exports Imports Installed Generation
Capacity 1.403 billion kWh 3.891 billion kWh 88 million kWh 3.073 billion kWh 535,500 kW
World Ranking 145 128 83 50 146


Namibia's generated electricity from different fuels 1990-2016


28% of Namibia's generated electricity come from fossil fuels, while 64% are from hydropower, and about 8% come from renewables[4].


Energy Security


Renewable Energy

Non-electricity off-grid renewable energy projects include the small/ micro wind energy installations used for water pumping, which are very common in Namibia, especially on farms. This technology has been used successfully for decades, with about 30,000 wind- driven water pumps installed in the country as of 2005; however, the current trend is to replace these with solar energy sources.[8]

General Indicators

Table: Namibia's Total Renewable Energy Capacity (MW) 2009-2018[9]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Capacity 244 245 248 342 345 347 357 384 394 431


Namibia's renewable energy share of the total final consumption 1990-2015 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Namibia's renewable energy consumption rates by source during 2015 (Tracking SDG7, 2019)


Solar

The solar conditions in the Namibian region are to be considered of the best worldwide for solar generation[1][2]. The country's average high direct solar insolation is 2200 kWh/m2/year, with a cover of minimum clouds[1][2]. The southern region of Namibia experiences -on average- 11 hours of sunshine/day, and an average direct solar radiation of 3000 kWh/m2/year[1]. With these conditions, Namibia has a huge potential for installing solar water heaters, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants[1].


Namibia's most common PV technology application is solar PV-based pumping, which is mainly used in cattle farms[1]. Secondary solar applications in the country would be rural electrification, powering radios, lighting, TVs, and fans[3].


Namibia's Installed Solar Capacity (MW) 2009-2018[9]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Capacity 4 4 7 11 15 16 27 36 46 79


The Solar Revolving Fund under the Ministry of Mines and Energy continues to subsidise stand-alone solar systems for individual household use: between 2015 and 2017, it financed some 1,600 solar systems (water heaters, pumps and solar home systems). (see below Solar Revolving Fund)


Hydropower

Hydropower is the country's major source for electricity generation, particularly, the Ruacana hydroelectric power station (330 MW)[3].


Namibia's Ruacana Power Station


Table: Namibia's Total Hydropower Capacity (MW) 2009-2018[9]
Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Capacity 240 240 240 330 330 330 330 347 347 347


Namibia's hydroelectric power generation 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Bioenergy

EEP Africa supported a very successful biomass energy project that is harvesting invader bush – which covers substantial areas of northern Namibia – for use in a steam boiler. The project, Combating Bush Encroachment for Namibia’s Development, has installed a 250 kW bush-to electricity gasification pilot power plant on a commercial farm in the heavily bush-infested Otavi area. The plant, which was not yet operational as of mid-2018, is considered as a proof-of-concept project to determine the financial feasibility of this approach, assess the robustness of the technology and establish Namibia’s first IPP.


Fossil Fuels

Oil

Liquid fuels in general, and oil in particular are widely used in Namibia's both household and industrial sectors[10]. Diesel and petroleum are the most used liquid fuels in the country, especially in the transport sector (~63% of Namibia's total consumed energy)[10].


Namibia's final consumption of oil and oil products 1990-2016 (IEA, 2019)


Coal

Namibia uses coal solely for generating electricity, thus through the country's only coal-powered station (Van Eck Power Station)[10]. All the coal used in Namibia is imported, and it mostly comes from South-Africa[10].


Key Problems of the Energy Sector

For Namibia to develop its energy sector and achieve energy security for the decades to come, some challenges need to be mitigated and handled properly at the first place, from which some are listed below[11][2]:

  1. The needed technology and engineering skills in the country are limited and underdeveloped.
  2. The foreign investment in the country's energy sector is very limited.
  3. The country lacks both incentives and national targets for developing and improving its energy sector.
  4. No national investments have been carried out during the past 3-4 decades, neither for developing the energy sector, nor for improving and increasing the country's electricity generation capacity.
  5. The local electricity tariffs, when compared to other nations in the region, are considered to be on the low level.
  6. The high cost of energy supply.
  7. The continuous droughts, which decrease the water dispatch in the Ruacana Station (Namibia's main energy supplier), consequently, the energy sector is more often incapable of meeting electric demand.
  8. There is currently no obvious business model to provide off-grid, small-scale solutions for the rural poor.


Challenges of large mini-grids

  • Systems not operated as designed
  • lack of effective institutional arrangements to ensure reliable operations and maintenance over time
  • insufficient financing ans customized investmetn supoort
  • limited government funds and capacity to manage the mini-grid[12]


Gaps, barriers and opportunities

The following table lists all issues (August 2017), copied from EEP S&A Energy Market Landscape Study.[13]


Energy Access Issues Challenges and barriers Opportunties Questions
Policy and regulatory
  • The Energy White Paper (1998), OGEMP (2007) an REDMP (2010) recognising that they are somewhat out-dated.
  • The scope of activities included in the OGEMP is extremely limited; it prescribes a specific solution and restricts the roles of key actors with the MME providing a revolving fund, technical assistance, and equipment and the private sector being locked into providing shops in specific areas with specific equipment.
  • The Ministry intends to revise the Energy White Paper (1998), OGEMP (2007) an REDMP (2010). There is some scope to support this process in collaboration with SE4ALL to define specific policy measures required to stimulate sustainable off-grid energy access markets.
  • A greater liberalisation of the electricity sector would enhance the ability of the private sector to identify ventures that would address user needs

Small-scale grid integrated independent power production
  • Namibia has significant renewable energy potential. However, uptake and use of RE for mainstream electricity generation remain slow.
  • Significant progress has been made in terms of the establishment of the IPP framework and the signing of 14 contracts of up to 5MW. There is potential to expand on this through the establishment of IPPs at RED level, supporting them with local distribution networks however, as Nampower remains the primary off-taker, therefore reducing the potential for local supply to the underserved or targeting specific customer groups. Changing this will require revisions to the market structure within the on-grid energy sector and it is not altogether clear whether the ECB and government consider this to be advisable.

Access to Finance
  • Some private sector players are concerned about the exchange rate fluctuations that mean that any loan geared to foreign currency is challenging to service due to the devaluation of the South African Rand.
  • The Solar Revolving Fund only offers loans of up to approximately EUR 2,075 supporting mainly individual installations and makes use of the list of registered service providers under REIAoN.
  • There is potential to support the work of the DBN in extending credit lines to small-scale IPPs, particularly now that the work of the EIF in collaboration with SME Bank has halted, although DBN is keen to keep their transactions costs down. Portfolio funding may be more attractive in this context.
  • The fund is overseen and managed by the MME and therefore could potentially include an SME component with a more significant loan portfolio. There may be a possibility to link with microfinancing institutions such as Kongalend to attract SMEs to develop business ideas to address the off-grid energy market

Economies of scale
  • The greatest challenge for private sector engagement in Namibia is the absence of economies of scale, particularly in rural areas. The sparse population and distances between homesteads does negate the commercial viability of on and off-grid solutions. The lessons learned from the two off-grid mini grids are that the maintenance of the infrastructure is expensive and local ownership is lacking, resulting in the infrastructure being abused. There is currently no obvious business model to provide off-grid, small-scale solutions for the rural poor.
  • PPAs could be provided to private sector players that are servicing peri-urban, more densely populated areas, ensuring economies of scale. For the rural poor, it may be necessary to consider a subsidised model of energy provision to make the venture commercially viable.

Energy efficient cook stoves
  • There is reportedly market potential to develop the cook stove supply chain. However, it would appear that current schemes are very small in scale.
  • The use of the encroacher bush as an alternative fuel source to be scaled up commercially could be supported.
  • There is significant information to learn from other countries in the region and business models could be enhanced to scale up production.
  • Business case would need to be investigated due to the availability of free fuel wood.




Policy Framework, Laws and Regulations[14] [15]


YEAR
POLICY
1998 White paper on Energy Policy
2006 IPP Market Framework
2007 Electricity Act, 2007
2007 (to be updated) Off-Grid Energization Master Plan OGEMP

2010

Rural Electrification Master Plan (2010)
2011
National Policy on Climate Change
2015
National Connection Charge Policy

2015

Namibia’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution to the UNFCCC (INDC)
2017

Energy Policy - July 2017.pdf National Energy Policy - July 2017

2016
Electricity SECTOR NATIONAL INTEGRATED RESOURCE PLAN (NIRP) 2016 REPORT.PDF
2017
National Renewable Energy Policy - July 2017
2017
Namibia Energy Regulatory Authority Bill


National programmes

Feed-In Tarif

  • Background:  The Namibian government, through the Interim renewable energy feed-in tariff (REFIT) project, has managed to already connect 9 of the 14 projects to the national electricity grid. The interim REFIT projects managed to feed a total of 93GW of electricity into the national grid in 2017. The country is also committed to increase the local electricity generating capacity and, especially, the rural electrification rate from 34% to 50% by 2020.ESI
  • Renewable Feed-in Tariff (REFIT) scheme: The REFIT scheme is formulated to permit private investors (IPPs) and it covers renewable energy based projects with capacities between 500 kW and 5 MW. The REFIT is targeted on investors in the business of electricity generation who want to procure, own and operate medium-scale electricity generation facilities. An interim 70 MW REFIT programme is running whereby Twenty-seven participants are pursuing fourteen 14 IPPs (solar PV, wind, and biomass) 5 MW generation licenses under the current program.DOING BUSINESS

Promotion of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

  • to create a culture of energy consciousness
  • to improve framework conditions for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency technologies
  • to create dialogue platforms for advancement of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency


The Off-Grid Energisation Master Plan

is a 20 year programme aiming to provide access to appropriate energy technologies to communities living in off-grid areas, through:

  • Solar electrification of public institutions
  • Establishing of Energy Shops and
  • Credit financing of solar technologies


Energy Shop approach

Energy shops provide the targeted communities with access to appropirate energy.

"Fourteen Energy Shops are located in different regions and their primary function is to stock and sell suitable and approved energy products and compatible appliances. Public institutions such as clinics, schools and police base stations falling under the domain of OGEMP are electrified by government with 288kWp containerized stand- alone systems and large decentralised hybrid systems."[16]

Solar Revolving Fund

The Solar Revolving Fund under the Ministry of Mines and Energy continues to subsidise stand-alone solar systems for individual household use: between 2015 and 2017, it financed some 1,600 solar systems (water heaters, pumps and solar home systems). Solar Revolving Fund: A Financing Strategy for Solar Energy Technologies in Namibia.[17]

Loans to households "at a favourable interest rate of 5 percent during the loan period of five years. The maximum loan amount is around US$ 2,600 for solar water heaters, between US$ 530 and US$ 3,100 for solar home systems and US$ 4,400 for solar water pumps. Uptake of the loans has been high, and the fund has not been able to keep up with the demand. More than 1,000 systems of varying sizes have been installed through the SRF, and a repayment rate above 85 per cent has been reported."[14]

Systems financed through SRF up until FY 17/18[18]

System type #
SHS 3039
PVP 386
SWH 138
Total 3563



Rural off-grid electrification

According to the REN21-SADC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report (2018), the challenge in Namibia is to provide electricity access to the 79% of the rural and sparse population that does not have access by establishing feasible and maintainable off-grid solutions. The Rural Electricity Distribution Masterplan 2010 prioritises 2,879 rural localities to be electrified in the next 20 years and identifies 27 localities for off-grid electrification (including via renewables); however, implementation has been limited.[19]

  • The 27 localities, having 17 schools, that are earmarked for Off-Grid electrification, are located in three regions Kunene (6), Otjozondjupa (13) and Omaheke (8).[19]
  • see Maps of Hospitals, clinics and health centers on p. 62; Schools: p. 63 as of 2010.[19]

So far the country has developed several pilot mini-grids, including three off-grid systems: Gobabeb, Tsumkwe Mini Grid and Gam Solar PV Mini Grid. In rural and remote areas where neither the main grid nor mini- grids are available, consumers depend on stand-alone electricity sources, mainly diesel generators. The use of solar technologies has been increasing, and hybrid solar/diesel systems have proved to be technically sound off-grid solutions.[20]

Institutional Set up in the Energy Sector[14] [15]

National Government

Regulatory Authority and Government Agencies

  • The Electricity Control Board(ECB)wasestablishedin2000. Its role is to regulateelectricity generation, transmission, distribution, supply, import and export in Namibia through setting tariffs and issuing licenses.
  • The National Technical Committee on Renewable Energy (NTCRE)of the Natiional Standards Institute (NSI): develops norms, standards and codes of practice for the performance, manufacture, installation and maintenance of renewable energy technologies. In 2006 it issued a Code of Practice and Register of Products and a list of approved technologies and suppliers.
  • Namibia Investment Centre (NIC):with the major responsibility of promoting FDI (Foreign Direct Investment).
  • The National Planning Commission is responsible for planning national priorities and ensuring that climate change considerations are properly reflected in sector plans and budgetary allocations.

Power Producers

On grid (Government)

On-grid (IPP)

Off-grid

  • NamPower is a state-owned enterprise that reports to the MME. It owns and operates most of the country’s grid generation and all of the transmission assets as well as some distribution facilities in the rural areas of central and southern Namibia. As system operator and trader, NamPower has the important role of balancing supply and demand and is the contracting party for imports.
  • Regional Electricity Distributors(REDs): REDs are state-owned legal entities tasked with the supply and distribution of electricity in a dedicated region.
    •  NORED (covering the far northern part of the country)
    •  CENORED (covering the central-northern part of the country stretching to the Caprivi Strip comprising the Otjozondjupa and Kunene regions)
    • ERONGORED (covering the central coastal region to the west of the country including Walvis Bay and Swakopmund)
    • Central RED (not yet operationalas of 2017)
    • Southern RED (not yet operational yetas of 2017)
    • City of Windhoek (not a RED per se but retains all the functions of one 
  • At least 14 IPPs have been selected under the REFIT. (only 11 are operational. Mar 2019)
    • Omburu Solar PV
    • Ejuva One and Two: 5MW solar power plants with annual generation capacity of 25.8GWh.[14]
    • 250 kW bush-to-electricity power plant on a commercial farm in the Otavi area (CBEND)
  • 3 Mini-grids:
    • Gam Solar PV
    • Tsumkwe
    • and Gobabeb (NAMA, 2015, p. 40 gives the key data on the 3 mini-grids)


Banks

  • Kongalend (micro-lender, Kongalend works in partnership with technology suppliers and technicians). They lend to individuals and SMEs for renewable energy at an interest rate of up to 15.6% only after verifcation of formal income.
  • Development Bank of Namibia (provides finance to larger scale IPPs)
  • Bank Windheok
  • First National Bank (Individual loans are available through First National Bank (FNB), South African based, for the installation of renewable energy in homes.)
  • RMB Bank
  • SME Bank (suspended involvement in EIF due to irregularities of SME Bank, see EEP p.65))
  • Standard Bank
  • AgriBank


Private sector

There are about 50 solar technology companies.[15] „The number of local, established renewable energy companies in Namibia is low. Most companies focus on project development, engineering-procurement-construction (EPC) activities and installation of photovoltaic and solar thermal solutions. The established, local companies, some of which have been active in the field of renewable energies for more than 10 years, generally have sound know-how and technical understanding. As there is no formal training in the field of renewable energies in Namibia, employees are individually trained by the companies. Thus, the quality and the level of education of local companies and specialists can vary considerably.“[21]


D-Lab’s Off-Grid Energy Groupprovides aggregat ed information about solar lighting products:Products and Distributors by Country: information sheets containing information on products available in a given country.

They list 4Namibian Distributors with email, two of them from South Africa(13 April, 2017)

  • 1) Restio Energy , South Africa
  • 2) Solar Works!, South Africa
  • 3) SolarAge Namibia, Namibia
  • 4) TOTAL Awango Namibia


online available information about private companies:


Associations/Research institutions

Renewable Energy Industry Association of Namibia (REIAoN)

  • Renewable Energy Industry Association of Namibia. Fifty members focus on solar energy and three on wind. This list is used for the basis of the EIF programme which provides credit to end users to purchase and install RE products.[14] (No activities on their webpage since 2015.)

Other associations

  • Association of consultant Engineers of Namibia
  • Namibia Manufacturers Association
  • Namibia Chamber of Commerce and Industry


Namibia Energy Institute (NEI)

  • Formally known as theRenewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Institute (REEEI),itwas established by the Government within the Polytechnic of Namibia in 2006. It is disseminating research and information about renewable energy as well as providing technical assistance to the MME inthe implementation of renewable energy projects and programmes including addressing barriers to renewable energy development.
  • The National Energy Institute (NEI), operating under the Namibia University of Science and Technology, has the mandate to undertake research, development, capacity building and awareness creation in the energy field, including energy efficiency.
  • They have 4 Centres: CREEE (for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency), CES for Electricity Supply, CPOG for Petrolleum, Oil and Gas and CNS for Nuclear Siences.

Since 2006, several projects are/were implemented:

  • Scoping Study for OGMP
  • Status of Energy Report
  • CSP feasibility study (50-100 MW)
  • large PV regulations for procurement
  • regulatory framework for netmetering
  • NEEP in Buildings
  • SOLTRAIN solar thermal training and demonstration initiative
  • National Integrated Resource Plan
  • SACREEE
  • EU REDCROSS Promoting Renewable Energy for Climate Change Mitigation Initiative in Namibia (implemented from March 2017 to April 2019 to communities in Kavango East and West regions; close to 300 households benefitted from the project and that two solar-powered boreholes were constructed in Mayana and Sharukwe community gardens.)


Desert Research Foundation of Namibia (DRFN)

The Desert Research Foundation of Namibia was established to support research but also to address sustainable development throughout arid lands. The DRFN tackles issues ranging from water to energy to land from a human and a basic biophysical perspective, as well as undertaking awareness and capacity building necessary to support this approach.



Other Key Actors / Activities of Donors, Implementing Agencies, Civil Society Organisations

NGOs

Elephant Energy Trust

Elephant Energy has worked with partners including the Peace Corps and World Teach to identify schools in the north eastern and central regions of Namibia that are in need of lighting resources and can act as reliable stewards of the libraries for years to come.  Thus far, EE has distributed more than 800 lights allowing 6,500 learners access to light. Elephant Energy has more than 40 Sales Agents through Namibia. https://www.elephantenergy.org/v2-sales-agents

Citizen Trust

(no information about them yet)


Donor Involvement

„There is not a great deal of donor related activity being implemented in Namibia, with the exception of the regional programmes being implemented. KfW Bank, AfDB and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) are providing large-scale fi-nancing and the UNDP, World Bank and GIZ are involved in the development of energy resources for Namibia. GIZ is particularly focused on developing biomass using the invader bush that has proved to be a hindrance for Namibian farmers. The EU has supported some projects under its climate change programme and supports the installation of solar water pumps for farmers.“[14]

Implications for the Theory of Change: „Small-scale IPP projects are bankable despite the lack of government guarantees due to a general market confi-dence in the stability of Nampower and the government. However, currency fluctuations and the devaluation of the Rand appear to affect private sector willingness to take loans geared to foreign currency. The continued expansion of small-scale, renewable projects may not be promoted by ECB in the short term due to difficulties in managing the variable supply from renewable energy IPPs and the current supply infrastructure. Developing bankable off-grid projects is challenging in Namibia due to the absence of an economy of scale. There is potential in peri-urban areas, which would then satisfy the TOC however this would require a change of regulation to allow for the direct distribution to local customers. Rent-to-own business models, such as those of Mobisol and Off:Grid Electric may be more suited to this context, although there may need to be guarantees in place if the grid were to be extended to these areas.“[14]



Past and current involvement of donors

(List is still not sorted)

Funding by...

Current projects

Past involvement

Information

AFD

0 on their homepage


1 Grid project

„Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and Energy Finance Fund“

„Namibia’s second-largest lender, Bank Windhoek last November issued a green bond on the Namibia Stock Exchange to fund renewable energy projects. It’s also financing projects as implementing partner of the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and Energy Finance Fund, which was established by the French Development Agency.“

  • Bank support to energy infrastructure will include the Kudu Gas Power Project.[22]
  • Zimbabwe-Zambia-Botswana-Namibia Interconnector

Finnland (embassy)


Solar water project

the first of what’s expected to be a series of 100% solar-powered desalination systems developed by Finland’s Solar Water Solutions along the beach line adjacent to the University of Namibia’s Henties Bay campus. A joint development initiative on the part of the University of Namibia and Finland’s University of Turku, which funded the project for an approximate cost of around 3.2 Namibian dollars (~USD212,000).

Finnish Embassy’s Local Cooperation Fund.


Energy Shops

The cost of the three-year pilot phase of implementation of the Energy Shops was estimated at N$7,603,000 (DRFN 2008), including the cost of short-term consultancy (N$1,085,000), and the annual funding for the implementing agency, the awareness campaign, the Solar Revolving Fund, and the equipment for the first 20 Level 1 Energy Shops (N$6,518,000).

Evaluation of the first phase: see p. 44 in NAMA 2015

WEF, WB, IFC, ADB, IRENA

Namibia and Botswana’s five-gigawatt solar power development partnership


Namibia and Botswana’s five-gigawatt solar power development partnership with WEF’s Global Future Council on Energy will be carried out in multiple phases over the course of the next 20 years and leverage the collective expertise and resources of the organizations involved. From the Global Future Council on Energy’s side, that includes the World Bank Group, the International Finance Corp., the African Development Bank, the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), and Power for Africa.

GCF

www.greenclimate.fund/project/fp023

2016-2022





Proposal: „to provide rural crop males and females farmers with alternative sustainable access to off-grid solar energy technologies (water pumping for small-scale micro horticultural systems, and refrigeration for harvested food) and reduce the dependency of increasingly expensive (and environmentally unfriendly) imported fuels by promoting solar water pumping in the agricultural sector.“

„Some piloting activities have already been carried out with government support, such as at Tsumkwe with off-grid solar village connection. To date, there are no major renewable energy pilots in the CRAVE project targeted areas. In the three target regions, there is a huge need to improve SSF access to clean energy sources to enable them to improve their production activities, especially for agricultural water pumping services.“

Outcome 3.1 Alternative sustainable access for off-grid solar energy technologies widely promoted, adopted and applied (in the three targeted regions) (SSHF and SSF) Output 3.1 Solar Water Pumping for Agriculture

EEP Africa Project Portfolio 2019

Wast to energy, on-grid project


Doranova Finnish company; waste to energy- biogas 400 kW pilot project, on-grid in Ondangwe

USAID

since March 2017

Flood relief

  • Southern Africa Energy Program (SAEP) provides technical assistance support to various public and private stakeholders, including ECB, NamPower, and the Ministry of Mines and Energy related to five outcomes: Improved Regulation, Planning, and Procurement for Energy; Improved Commercial Viability of Utilities; Improved Regional Harmonization and Cross-Border Trade; Scaled Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency; and Increased Human and Institutional Expertise. USAID-SAEP.pdf
  • Namibia Flood-Relief Energization Plan 2011: USAID Elephant Energy received a grant from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to implement the Namibia Flood-Relief Energization Plan, with a goal to assess and address the energy needs of flood victims in Northern Namibia. https://www.lightingafrica.org/solar-lamps-for-disaster-relief/ 

WB: Additional Financing for SAPP AREP Program - MDTF



Relevant for energy access?

https://projects.worldbank.org/en/projects-operations/project-detail/P163545

Adaptation Fund

Water desalination plants, since 2018, 4 years


Namibia Pilot rural desalination plants using renewable power and membrane technology, via Namibia Water Corporation Ltd (NamWater)
https://www.adaptation-fund.org/project/pilot-rural-desalination-plants-using-renewable/
Desert Research Foundation of Namibia USD4,999,6744,33

UK Aid

?

X

(for development of a climate financing strategy and programme)

Turkey, Finland

?

X

(both to address bush encroachment)

Germany

?

X

  • GIZas been very active in promiting the use of invader bush.
  • "GIZ focuses on the management of natural resources, transport, sustainable economic development and provides technical assistance in the fieldsof basic education and health. KfW provides assistance in energy, transport, water, education and health." [22]
  • denaRES Project Namibia_Flyer_en.pdf2016:Solar NamibiaThis project is part of the worldwide dena Renewable Energy Solutions Programme coordinated by Deutsche Energie-Agentur (dena) - the German Energy Agency - and co-financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) within the German Energy Solutions Initiative.© deea solutions GmbH | 2016
USA

Millennium Challenge Corporation


  • MCC’s support focuses on education, tourism, health and livestock.[22]
China

"China is now Namibia’s third largest provider of bilateral development assistanceand has invested in a number of sectors, including construction and mining."[22]

EU

EU REDCROSS Promoting Renewable Energy for Climate Change Mitigation Initiative in Namibia


  • (implemented from March 2017 to April 2019 to communities in Kavango East and West regions; close to 300 households benefitted from the project and that two solar-powered boreholes were constructed in Mayana and Sharukwe community gardens.) Apr 2019
  • "The project will facilitate the construction of 200 energy-saving cooking stoves, as you know climate change is real. We need to ensure that we reduce the cutting down of trees for firewood. It will also distributesolar lamps to 200 families, which will reduce paraffin usage and help reduce the effects of climate change, as well as indoor pollution," Apr 2018
  • The European Union (EU) is focusing on basic infrastructure (water, sanitation and roads), human resources development (education and health) and governance[22]

Cheetah Conservation Fund

Bushblok project


Wood briquettes


Energy For Future

Bush-to-Fuel Project


Wood chips for cement plant

EU

‘Combating Bush Encroachment for Namibia’s Development’ CBEND project


A 250 kW bush-to-electricity power plant on a commercial farm in the Otavi area (proof of concept; Namibias first IPP; (not yet operational in mid-2018)

Q&L (funding by EEP)

Thermal heat plant


Hot water supply for brewery.

Elephant Energy

Rent-to-own model for SHSs



Pilot cookstove project by EEP

Dissimination of stoves by SMEs in rural areas



bettervest Solarstrom für die ländliche Elektrifizierung in Namibia - Olusheno

2,160 solar systems imported (crowd financing of 200,000 USD)

https://www.bettervest.com/projekt/SHS-Namibia-Olusheno-2

Hans Seidel Stifung

Promoting Renewable Energies in Namibia (PREN) project

Data Portal on Rural Electrification Workshop: Known as Data Portal on Rural Electrification the system can trace such facilities with accuracy that includes distance to nearest power lines, images, etc. The portal seems not yet to be online.


Business models and Financing

Climate Financing

"The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has been the biggest and most consistent donor in Namibia’s Climate Environment Energy fraternity. As mentioned in section 2.2, Germany has been the mainstay bilateral donor for CEE since Namibia’s Independence. The following CEE projects are active:

Namibia National Parks Programme (US$4.2m); Biodiversity Management and Climate Change (US$7.5m); Resource Mobilisation for Effective Implementation of the Updated Biodiversity Strategy (US$3.13m);Bush Control and Biomass Utilisation (US$12.5m); Support to Land Reform Beneficiaries (US$2.5m); Adaptation of agriculture to climate change in northern Namibia (US$7.5m); Community-based natural resource management (US$6.25m); SDG initiative (US$3.75m); Conservation and sustainable use of the Benguela Current large marine ecosystem (US$11m); Transboundary water management in SADC (US$17.76m); Sector support to combat desertification (US$7.9m) and transboundary conservation and use of natural resources in SADC (US$10m)."[23]

The Annex 11: Namibia’s energy generation and access situation – financing and investments lists a total investement of 101,426,307 USD by 5 private entities, 2 state-owned entities (larges share by the Development Bank of Namibia) and the micro-medium lender Kongalend.[23]


Households' expenditures for energy

Annual off-grid household expenditure on lighting and mobile phone charging compared to shs (< 1 kW) annualised costs, by country in 2015 IRENA Solar PV Costs Africa 2016.[24]

Annual off-grid household expenditure on lighting and mobile phone charging compared to shs (< 1 kW) annualised costs, by country in 2015. Namibia highlighted.


In Namibia, household spend between 96 and 168 USD(2015) for energy espenditures. This is well within the range of the annualised SHS costs range between 50 and 210 USD(2015). In other countries the costs  may exceed the households' expenditures.[25]


Further Information





References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Munyayi, R. Chiguvare, Z. & Ileka, H. (2015). Fact Sheet on: Renewable Energy – Shifting Energy Systems in Namibia towards a More Sustainable Path. Retrieved from: https://www.thinknamibia.org.na/files/learn-and-engage/jtBTlZQO-YnHdSkT.pdf" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Von Oertzen, D. (2010). Namibian National Issues Report on the Key Sector of Energy with a Focus on Mitigation. Retrieved from: https://www.undpcc.org/docs/National%20issues%20papers/Energy%20(mitigation)/15_Namibia%20NIP_energy%20mitigation.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Lund, H.G. & Mabirizi, F. (2017). Atlas of Africa Energy Resources. Retrieved from: https://www.icafrica.org/fileadmin/documents/Publications/Africa_Energy_Atlas.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2019). The World Fact-book: Africa: Namibia. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/geos/wa.html
  5. Tracking SDG7. (2019). Namibia. Retrieved from: https://trackingsdg7.esmap.org/country/namibia
  6. Select Namibia and the respective scenario at http://www.reog-x.com/NDC-visualization/static
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 African Energy Commission (AFREC). (2019). Africa Energy Database. Retrieved from: https://afrec-energy.org/Docs/En/PDF/2018/statistics_2018_afrec.pdf
  8. Danish Ener gy Management & Esbensen, Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study Covering 15 Countries in Southern and East Africa. Volume II. Country Profiles, Stakeholder Maps (August 2017), p 32 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/ Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_Country - Profiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Whiteman, A. Esparrago, J. Rueda, S. Elsayed, S. & Arkhipove, I. (2019). Renewable Energy Statistics 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2019/Mar/IRENA_RE_Capacity_Statistics_2019.pdf
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Republic of Namibia (RoN). (2013). Energy Demand and Forecasting in Namibia – Energy for Economic Development. Retrieved from: http://www.npc.gov.na/?wpfb_dl=229
  11. DNV-GL. (2018). Technical Market Review – Country Profile: Namibia. Retrieved from: https://www.ctc-n.org/system/files/dossier/3b/country_profile_-_namibia.pdf
  12. Fenni Shidhika, Namibia Energy Institute, 2018, PROCEEDINGS of the Conference on Solar Power Systems for NamibiaSolar Energy for Rural Development 16 –18 May 2018 http://unam.edu.na/sites/default/files/proceedings_of_spsn_2018_-_presentations.pdf
  13. Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEPS&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Renewable Energy Market Landscape Study covering 15 countries in Southern and East Africa, EEP S&EA, August 2017 https://www.entwicklung.at/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/Regionen/Volume_II_Market_Landscape_-Study_-EEP-SEA_CountryProfiles_StakeholderMaps-1.pdf" defined multiple times with different content
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action: Rural Development In Namibia, 2015, https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Environment%20and%20Energy/MDG%20Carbon%20Facility/NAMA%20Final%20Namibia%202.pdf
  16. Oliver C. Ruppel & Bernd Althusmann, 2016 Perspectives on Energy Security and Renewable Energies in Sub-Saharan Africa Practical Opportunitiesand Regulatory Challenges. Second Revised and Expanded Edition, KAS (Chapter 2: Zivayi Chiguvare & Helvi Ileka), https://www.kas.de/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=4a581452-7f89-6465-bd47-b3533bb47f01&groupId=282730
  17. https://energypedia.info/wiki/Solar_Revolving_Fund:_A_Financing_Strategy_for_Solar_Energy_Technologies_in_Namibia
  18. PROCEEDINGS of the Conference on Solar Power Systems for NamibiaSolar Energy for Rural Development 16 –18 May 2018 http://unam.edu.na/sites/default/files/proceedings_of_spsn_2018_-_presentations.pdf
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Ministry of Mines and Energy of the Government of Namibia, Implementation of the Off-Grid Energisation Master Plan (OGEMP) http://www.mme.gov.na/files/publications/541_off-grid-masterplan.pdf
  20. European Union Energy Initiative Partnership Dialogue Facility (EUEI PDF) and Regional Electricity Regulators Association of Southern Africa (RERA), Supportive Framework Conditions for Mini-grids Employing Renewable Energy and Hybrid Generation in the SADC Region. Namibia Case Study: Gap Analysis and National Action Plan (Eschborn, Germany: December 2013), http://www.euei-pdf.org/sites/default/files/field_publication_file/SADC_RERA_Case_Studies.zip .
  21. GIZ, 2020, GBN sector brief Namibia, https://www.giz.de/en/downloads/GBN_Sector%20Brief_Namibia_RenewableEnergy_E_WEB.pdf
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/2014-2018_-_Namibia_Country_Strategy_Paper.pdf
  23. 23.0 23.1 UNICEF Climate Landscape Analysis for Children in NamibiaFinal Report (2018) https://www.unicef.org/namibia/na.UNICEF_CLAC_Report_August_2018.pdf
  24. IRENA 2016, https://sun-connect-news.org/fileadmin/DATEIEN/Dateien/New/IRENA_Solar_PV_Costs_Africa_2016.pdf
  25. IRENA 2016, https://sun-connect-news.org/fileadmin/DATEIEN/Dateien/New/IRENA_Solar_PV_Costs_Africa_2016.pdf