There are different ways of operating (see as well: Financing Models and Dissemination Models) solar hybrid systems:
- The system can be of private or public ownership.
- The operation can be duty of the owner, but could also be delegated to someone else.
Example: EnDev Senegal
In Senegal EnDev implements ERSEN (Projet Electrification Rurale Sénégal), a programme for rural electrification which is part of the Programme for the Promotion of Rural Electrification and the Provision with Sustainable Household Combustibles PERACOD.
The Senegalese Agency for Rural Electrification (ASER) is in charge of different approaches to rural electrification. One is ERIL (Electrification Rurale d’Initiative Locale) that comprises rural electrification projects of local initiative.
ERSEN ist implemented by EnDev under ERIL regulations. An ERIL project is an initiative of local public or private actors implementing a rural electrification project in an area in which no other project is planned for the next three years to come.
The main characteristics of an ERIL project are defined by ASER as follows:
- The production systems are state owned.
- Local actors initiate the project, are responsible for the implementation and contribute to the initial investment costs.
- The companies that install the equipment are chosen through a tender. ASER ensures the compliance with standards during installation and supervises commissioning.
- ASER chooses an operator through a tender who is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment. He has to replace broken parts and other equipment at the end of its life time without additional costs for the clients.
- The operator is a natural or legal person of Senegalese private law. He has to be capable of carrying out all the necessary tasks concerning the operation of the system, namely technical, commercial and financial management, for a period of 15 years.
- A service contract between the user and the operate stipulates the rights and duties of each party.
- The users pay an initial connection fee and a monthly fee to the operator for the electricity service provided. The tariffs are determined by the Regulatory Commision for the Electricity Sector (CRSE) based on socio-economic studies in the intervention area and the business plan of the operator.
- ERIL projects can be conducted in one or more villages of a rural community for a maximum of 200 users.
CRSE and ASER ensure the supervision of the quality of the installation and the electric service as well as the compliance with the tariff regulations.
The operator periodically has to submit detailed reports of activities to the authorities.
The local collectives monitor the operator's management and ascertain that the users pay their fees regularly. They keep a record of reclamations that will be included in a report to CSRE and ASER within the service quality control.