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Wind Energy Country Analysis Senegal

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Overview - Wind Energy Potential

Map of Senegal.jpg

Senegal’s wind power potential is concentrated along the coast, particularly at the north coast between Dakar and Saint-Louis. In a study carried out by the Senegal Meteorological Service, wind velocities in the 50 km-long coastal strip between Dakar and Saint-Louis have been 3.7–6.1 m/s. The Centre d’Études et de Recherches sur les Énergies Renouvelables (CERER) measured an average annual speed of 5.8 m/s at the north coast and 4.2 m/s at the south coast[1]. In inland areas average wind speeds are between 2 to 3 m/s and are therefore only interesting for a traditional or combined use of wind energy (wind turbines for water pumps and combined wind/hydro systems)[2].

The African Wind Energy Association (AfriWEA[3]) only mentions the GTZ TERNA Wind Energy Program, a study by InWEnt (»Wind regimes of Africa«)[4] and local measurements by ALIZES (an organization for the use of water pumps operated with renewable energies, including wind)[5] as information sources on the Senegalese wind potential. ALIZE was a large program supported through the EU and the French Development Agency. In the context of ALIZE, CERER together with consultants collected data from several measure points until the middle of the 90ties.

InWent reports average wind speeds on the coast of Senegal between 4.5 and 5.5 m/s in the hub height of our reference turbine (45 m). However, these values are comparably low due to obstacles nearby (other buildings, trees etc.)[6]. From July 2007 to July 2008, wind measurements accompanied through capacity building activities have been carried out by Windguard in the context of the GTZ TERNA Wind Energy Programme at the two coastal locations Kayar and Potou. Potou shows, with an average annual wind speed of 6.4 m/s in 70 m height, far better results than Kayar with 5.8 m/s. These measurements are the first ones which have delivered reliable data, as the other studies did not publish the underlying framework conditions[7]. Based on the results, GTZ and the Senegalese Partner plan to carry out a feasibility study for a wind farm at the location Potou[8]. Once completed, the study will be made available for interested project developers and investors. High-level wind data can be found on the webpage of »3tier« ([[1]]). They offer an initial wind assessment for different hub heights (20 / 50 / 80 m) and locations.


Framework Conditions for Wind Energy

No specific target for the use of wind energy has been established yet[9]. Wind energy is not supported financially in Senegal yet (see above). As average wind speeds even in favourable locations such as the north coast of Senegal are of medium speed, financial support of wind energy is necessary for realisation of projects[10] The permission procedure for wind turbines is not standardised and therefore time-consuming. The necessary permits are similar to procedures in Europe so e.g. a building permit and an environmental permit are needed[11]. Additionally, it seems to be necessary to get the approval of the village council[12]. The grid connection conditions for wind energy plants are unknown, as no wind energy plants exist yet. There is a need for training of governmental authorities and staff from SENELEC on state-of-the-art knowledge of wind energy utilisation (regulatory, technical and economic aspects)[13] The electricity market has officially been separated in the three sectors production, transmission, and distribution – but until 2009 SENELEC stills holds the monopoly for sale and distribution of electricity, which creates legal uncertainty and therefore an impediment for private investors and project developers[14]. Even large private industrial companies[15] that generate electricity for their own supply (partly from agricultural residues) have not reached an agreement (i.e. power purchase contract) with SENELEC on feeding electricity into the grid[16]. No information is available on specific grid expansion plans for the north coast of Senegal, where commercial wind energy plants could be implemented.

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Current Use of Wind Energy and Project Pipeline

End of 2008, the total installed wind energy capacity in Senegal was between 0 and 10 KW[17]. In 2009, no commercial wind energy plant has been built in Senegal, although plans for pilot projects exist. The use of wind energy with multi-wing wind turbines for water pumping has a long tradition in Senegal. They are mainly installed in a belt parallel to the north coast where fruits and vegetables are planted in a large scale. These mainly locally produced small wind turbines are robust and are often financed through international aid. A supporting aspect is that energy supply and demand in the case of irrigation of agricultural areas fit together. The water demand in the wind intensive, but dry months is high, while it is low in the less wind intensive months due to a higher supply of rain and surface water[18]. In 2004, around 200 serviceable wind powered water pumps were installed. The Senegalese-Mauritanian non-governmental organization Alizés promotes the installation of wind pumps, and receives assistance from the European Union and French Development Agency for this purpose[19]. Besides that, some small scale (10 – 20 kW each), but old-fashioned wind turbines have been financed through Italian donors and constructed in Mboro some years ago. But due to technical problems, they only worked for a few months[20]. Two other concepts, in addition to the traditional use of wind energy, are promising for the implementation in Senegal: first, the use of modern commercial wind turbines and second, the use of small-scale wind turbines in combined systems for decentralized rural electrification[21]. The German company INENSUS has developed a concept for a pilot project for a combined system (solar / wind) in cooperation with the GTZ.

The following steps have already been completed[22]

  • Wind/solar monitoring with aeolog at five sites
  • Socio-economic analyses
  • Business model development
  • Foundation of INENSUS West Africa in Dakar,

Sénégal The Next Steps will be:

  • Spring/Summer 2009: Setup of demonstration system in Sine Moussa Abdou and proof of concept
  • Winter 2009/2010: subscription and issuing of shares
  • Winter/Spring 2010: scale-up of village electrification

There is one major project in the planning phase, located north of Potou in the region Saint Louis on the north coastal area of Senegal. The so called Gantour project is planned in two phases, starting with a total capacity of 15 MW which shall then be expanded to 50 MW[23]. The estimated cost of the first phase is about 16.5 Mio. Euro. The project was due to start operation in 2009 and should produce 29 000 MWh of electricity per year (phase one)[24]. Additional financing is planned to be generated through the sale of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) as part of a CDM project[25]. According to the responsible project development company CEGELEC Toulouse, the construction did not start yet due to several delays[26]. The project is based on wind measurements which have been carried out between May 2004 and May 2005 in Gandon showing an annual average of 5.25 m/s in 40 m height[27]. As part of the project activity training will be provided for the operation and the maintenance of the wind park.

The project is a cooperation between:[28]

  • Responsible authority: regional council Saint Louis
  • Project developer: C3E (Dakar) and CEGELEC (Toulouse).
  • Project designated by the energy ministry
  • Financial support through: Région Midi-Pyrenées (France) and l’AFD (Agence Francaise de Devéloppement - French bilateral cooperation agency)

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Business Climate

Around 20 companies in Senegal are dealing with renewable energies, some including wind[29]. In addition to that, several foreign companies try to enter the market. However, as there are no existing plants the companies are just starting the business and are recently only active in the planning stages of projects.

Companies from Senegal:

  • C3E, Dakar: project developer
  • CERER (Centre d’Etudes et de Recerches sur les Energies Renouvelables)
  • Senegalese-Mauritanian non-governmental organization Alizés: promotion and installation of wind pumps

Companies from abroad:

  • INENSUS German company with a subsidiary in West Africa, Dakar: project developer of small scale hybrid systems including Solar /Wind
  • CEGELEC, Toulouse: project developer
  • Producers which are in discussion to deliver the wind turbines for the wind park in Saint Louis: Gamesa, Vergnet und Suzlon[30].

One of the main barriers for the implementation of wind energy projects is the low electricity price in combination with medium wind speeds[31]. Financing opportunities are limited to international donors e. g. the »Région Midi- Pyrenées« and AFD (French Development Agency) from France. However lack of financing is one of the reasons for the delay of the wind park in Saint Louis[32].

The availability of skilled workers and building materials is limited. As the technical equipment (turbines etc.) is not available in Senegal the project developers for the wind park in Gantour plan to import this from Europe[33]. The limited know-how about wind energy of SENELEC and governmental institutions is seen as an important factor for experienced delays in project implementations. Project investments could reasonably be complemented with capacity building in the governmental institutions and SENELEC.

The legal conditions for wind energy have still to be clarified. Neither framework nor regulations exist for renewable energies e. g. Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). That may lead to project delays.

The access to the grid is limited and dependant on a decision by SENELEC who holds the monopoly. SENELEC has to identify a specific site (and demand) first and then find a company in a competitive tender. For Independent Power Producers (IPPs) or project developers, it is very difficult to persuade SENELEC to allow grid access at a not yet identified location[34]. The negotiations between an IPP or a project developer and SENELEC are very timeconsuming, even though general support by the Ministry of Energy exists[35].

However, CRSE has been working on an improvement of the regulations during the past three years and e.g. studies have been commissioned. As the legislative procedure in Senegal proves to be very time-consuming, results are hoped to be reached in the end of 2010[36]. For an understanding of the Senegalese wind market, the wind farm project at Saint Louis will be further explained: The wind park is supported by the Saint-Louis regional authorities and the government of Senegal, through the Ministry for Energy. A contract providing a long-term concession regarding the land on which the wind park will be built has been signed. A draft contract for the sale of electricity was proposed by SENELEC[37].

According to the project developer delays of the project are caused by:

  • difficulties to obtain the authorisation
  • no final agreement with SENELEC for the sale of electricity
  • lack of financing, due to comparably high risks (country and medium wind speed)
  • in general very slow processes as no reference projects exist
  • lack of knowledge in the ministries and SENELEC

An evaluation by UNDP in 2008 concluded that mostly legal barriers have impeded the implementation of the project. The project consortium planned to produce electricity for own consumption and pay SENELEC a fee for the transport of the electricity through the transmission grid. But self-production is not provided for in the national energy laws and regulations[38]. In the context of the new regulatory framework for renewable energy production and sale, the consortium plans to sell their entire production to the grid and purchase electricity from the grid. This approach seems to be »more appropriate for SENELEC and will remove the barrier to the implementation of this project«[39]. However, the project developer stated that they could not settle a final agreement with SENELEC yet[40].

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Further Information

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References

  1. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[1]]
  2. GTZ (2004) Country Survey 2004. Energy-policy Framework Conditions for Electricity Markets and Renewable Energies – 23 Country Analyses, retrieved 29.7.2011 [[2]]
  3. African Wind Energy Association [[3]]
  4. InWEnt 2004: Wind regimes of Africa
  5. Projet Alizes - Valoriser le vent, une énergie propre et renouvelable [[4]]
  6. InWEnt 2004: Wind regimes of Africa
  7. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-fckLRLänderreport & Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[5]]
  8. GTZ (2009) Senegal country project - short description, retrieved 29.7.2011 [[6]]
  9. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  10. Personal information by phone, Dr. Rehfeldt, Deutsche Windguardt, 04.09.09 and Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel (CEGELEC Toulouse)((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  11. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  12. Jensen, D. Kühlen Fisch bewahren, in Neue Energie,fckLR07/2009, p. 105
  13. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  14. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[7]]
  15. Chemical company Industries Chimiques du Sénégal (ICS), sugar producerfckLRCompagnie Sucrière du Sénégal (CSS) and the agricultural producer (peanuts)fckLRSociété Nationale de Commercialisation des Oléagineux du Sénégal (SONACOS)
  16. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[8]]
  17. Senegal was not ranked in list of WWEA 2008, p. 20; Last position 76: Bolivia 0,01 MW; see also: total installed wind energy capacity in Senegal in 2006: 0KW (IEA 2006)
  18. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[9]]
  19. GTZ (2004) Country Survey 2004. Energy-policy Framework Conditions for Electricity Markets and Renewable Energies – 23 Country Analyses, retrieved 29.7.2011 [[10]]
  20. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  21. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[11]]
  22. Peterschmidt, N., Presentation, Hannover (22.04.2009)[[12]]
  23. Ndiaye, L. (C3E) NOTE DE SYNTHESE AVANCEMENTPROJET 11/09/2007, [[13]]
  24. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[14]]
  25. Jensen, D. Kühlen Fisch bewahren, in Neue Energie,07/2009, p. 105
  26. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  27. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[15]]
  28. Ndiaye, L. (C3E) NOTE DE SYNTHESE AVANCEMENTPROJET 11/09/2007, [[16]]
  29. Jensen, D. Kühlen Fisch bewahren, in Neue Energie,07/2009, p. 105
  30. Personal information by phone, Dr. Rehfeldt, Deutsche Windguardt, 04.09.09 interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  31. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  32. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  33. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  34. Personal information by phone, Dr. Rehfeldt, Deutsche Windguardt, 04.09.09 interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework ConditionsfckLRfor Electricity Markets and RenewablefckLREnergies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  35. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework Conditions for Electricity Markets and Renewable Energies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  36. Personal information by phone, Mr. Nicolas Martin Granel((Compagnie Général d’Entreprises Electriques (CEGELEC)) interview conducted by the authors of the GTZ country Survey 2009 (GTZ (2009) Energy-policy Framework Conditions for Electricity Markets and Renewable Energies 16 Country Analyses, Eschborn, Germany
  37. UNDP 2008: National policies and their linkages to negotiations over a future international climate change agreement; July 2008 [[17]]
  38. SENELEC still holds the monopoly for sale and distribution (at least until 2009).
  39. UNDP 2008: National policies and their linkages to negotiations over a future international climate change agreement; July 2008 [[18]]
  40. Owsianowski R.P., Dahouénon M. A., Goeft A. (2007) Projekterschließung Senegal-Erneuerbare Energien und ländliche Elektrifizierung-Länderreport Marktanalyse, German technical cooperation (GTZ) and German Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), retrieved 29.7.2011 [[19]]