The Renewable Energy Support Programme for ASEAN (ASEAN-RESP) is a jointly implemented programme between the ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ) that aims at improving the preconditions for the enhanced use of electricity generated from renewable energy (RE) sources in the ASEAN region.
Under ASEAN-RESP policy support activities, a survey was conducted to determine decisive factors for the development of private sector sponsored grid-connected biomass and solar PV projects in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. The result of the survey was discussed synthesized at the ASEAN workshop with regional and international experts in 2012. The survey identified a set of support mechanisms that promote bankable renewable power project implementation.
This “Policy Guideline” builds on the aforementioned survey and workshop results. It presents effective policy approaches and support mechanisms for private investment in RE projects at each stage of RE market development. This Guideline focuses on RE technologies that are not yet fully bankable in project finance across ASEAN. The Guideline is therefore oriented towards solar, wind, biomass, biogas, and small scale hydro. Large hydro and geothermal projects, on the other hand, have well established modalities for their development and finance and are not considered in this book.
The Guideline aims to provide concrete policy recommendations at the national level for decision makers in the ASEAN region at the inception, take-off and consolidation stages of renewable energy market deployment for electricity generation. The Guideline is considered as a living document, which must be subject to improvements and adjustments to include other successful approaches drawn on in the future.
Electricity consumption in ASEAN countries has increased rapidly with rising population and GDP growth. Electricity demand will continue to rise to support the growth of ASEAN economy, which is forecasted to grow at 5.2% per year over 2007-2030. Under a Business as Usual (BAU) scenario, final energy consumption in the ASEAN is anticipated to grow at an average annual rate of 4.4%. Electricity will have the highest growth rate among forms of energy used to directly satisfy end-use needs, at 6.4% per annum.
Energy security, economic development, and protection of environment are the key drivers of renewable energy policy in ASEAN. Almost all of the ASEAN member states have shown significant commitment in the medium to long term to increase renewable energy including renewable energy use in electricity generation. However, the ASEAN countries so far have had limited success in the expansion of renewable energy markets.
This chapter defines the market deployment stages of renewable energy (RE), describes the current status of RE deployment in each of the ASEAN member states and categorises the countries based on the respective RE deployment status.