Operation and Maintenance Plan and Glossary for PV Systems

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The Operation and Maintenance Plan for Off-grid Solar Systems covers preventive maintenance, best use practices, and common malfunctions and defects experienced for the O&M of pico-solar PV systems, solar home systems (SHS) (including component-based SHS) and solar water pumps. The O&M Plan covers the following sections:




Maintenance plan for Pico PV systems (<10W to 15W)


Maintenance plan for Solar PV systems (10W - 350W)


Maintenance plan for Solar Water Pump (SWP) System


Typical warranty terms for Pico PV, Solar Home Systems (including component based and street lights), and Solar Water Pumps

Frequent Malfunctions

List of frequent malfunctions disaggregated by application, cause, maintenance action and resources required to complete recommended action


This tab contains information applicable to all the applications, consisting of the following tables:-
- Procedures for Testing: Complimentary to 'Frequent Malfunctions' worksheet, indicating procedures for component testing
- Technician Toolkit, listing O&M equipment for all fundamental procedures
- Description of 'Skilled Solar PV Technician'

Glossary of Terms Used in the Operation and Maintenance of Off-Grid Solar System

The Glossary of Terms aims at cataloguing the most common terms utilized in the context of off-grid solar systems (components, storage applications, operation and maintenance). The terms in this glossary are also mapped against different stages of product or system lifecycle. To see a description of the individual sections, please see the table below:




The list of terms are defined in the context of :

(i) Solar photovoltaic applications, including storage
(ii) Off-grid solutions, and therefore standalone applications
(iii) Humanitarian context, that is, settlements / camps for forcefully displaced persons (where applicable)

They are categorized by 'Product / System Lifecycle' and 'Applicability'. The filter provided can be used to sort relevant terms.


The definition of the terminology is derived from a combination of sources, which are listed under this table.

Filters for Sub-group

List of Applications and Related Services

Product / System Lifecycle


MAN: Manufacturing

OPN: Operation

MAI: Maintenance

EOL: End-of-Life

All off-grid solutions

Solar products and systems

Solar Lanterns

Solar Home Systems (SHS)

Solar Pumping Irrigation System (SPIS)

Rooftop Solar PV System (RSPV)

Solar Street Lights

Off-grid Storage

Solar batteries - Lithium Ion

Solar batteries - Lead Acid, Flooded / Valve Regulated

Fuel generators

Diesel Generators

Petrol Generators


Solar PV panel

Solar inverter

Charge controller


Balance of system (cables, connection box, protective equipment, etc.)

Financial services for solar products


Voucher based payment



Tools developed by Raluca Dumitrescu and Daniel Philipp from MicroEnergy Consult for GIZ Energy Solutions for Displacement Settings (ESDS)----

GIZ's Energy Solutions for Displacement Settings (ESDS) project cooperates with UNHCR to enhance the access to sustainable energy in displacement contexts, and the Energypedia page has been created to share learnings across various practitioners to spur the development of clean energy solutions.

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