Energy Access Figures

From energypedia

Overview

In the article at hand energy access and investment needs figures from various sources, published at different times, are summarized. This article is only meant to give a rough overview of existing reliable sources concerning energy access for electricity and cooking energy and investment needed to provide universal access to energy, on a worldwide and regional scale. The presented sources use different input data, different methodologies and different regional aggregates for their calculations and estimates, thus a comparison of calculation and estimation outcomes is difficult and is beyond the scope of this article.


Electricity Access

Lack of Access to Electricity Worldwide (Absolute Numbers)

Source Present (data from)
Future
Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

2010: 1.2 billion

2018: 789 million

2030 - ~620 Million

IEA WEO 2019 Executive Summary[2] ~ 1 billion
Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]

2010 - 1.2 billion

2017 - 840 million

2030 - ~650 Million

Practical Action 2018[4]

2000 - 1.7 billion

2016 - 1.1 billion

2030 - 674 million
IEA WEO 2018[5] 2018 - below 1 billion
Global Tracking Framework 2017[6]
 2014 - 1.06 billion

IEA WEO 2016[7]

2014 - 1.2 billion

2030 - 780 million
2040 - 540 million

Global Tracking Framework 2015[8]

2012 - 1.1 billion


IEA WEO 2015[9]

2013 - 1.2 billion

2030 - 810 mio
2040 - 550 mio

IEA WEO 2014[10]

2012 - 1.285 billion

2030 – 969 million

Global Tracking Framework 2013[11]

2011 -  about 1.2 billion


IEA WEO 2013[12]

2011 – 1.257 billion


IEA WEO 2012[13]

2010 - 1.267 billion

2030 - 991 million

IEA WEO 2011[14]

2009 - 1.317 billion

2030 – 1,036 billion

IEA WEO 2010[15]

2009 - 1.441 billion 2030 - 1.213 billion

Practical Action 2012[16]

2009/2010 - 1.5 billion

2030 - 900 million

United National General Assembly (UN GA) 2010[17]

2009/2010 – 1.5 billion


International Institute for Applied Systems
Analysis
, Global Energy Assessment (IIASA
GEA 2012)[18]

2010 - 1.4 billion


World Health Orgnaisation (WHO) 2009[19]

2009 - 1.5 billion


UN Secretary-General´s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC) 2010[20]

2009 - About 1.5 billion



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Lack of Access to Electricity Regional (Absolute Numbers)

Source

Sub-Saharan Africa

Developing Asia

Latin America

Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

2018 - 548 Million






IEA Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2019[21]  

Southeast Asia:

2019 - 45 Million

Southeast Asia:

2030 - 0



IEA African Energy Outlook 2019[22]

2013 - 610 Million

2018 - 595 Million

2030 - 530 million



Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]
2019 - 573 Million




IEA WEO 2017[23]

2000 - 532 Million

2016 - 588 Million

2030 - 602 Million

2000 - 1059 Million

2016 - 439 Million

2030 - 54 Million

2000 - 56 Million

2016 - 17 Million

2030 - 4 Million
IEA WEO 2016[7]
2014 - 632 mio
2030: 619
2040: 489
2014 - 512 million
2030: 166
2040: 51
2014 - 22

 

2030: 0
2040: 0

IEA WEO 2015[24]

2013 - 634 mio


2013 - 525 mio

2030 - 185 mio

2040 - 50 mio



IEA WEO 2014 [10]

622 mio

2040: 530 mio

2012: 620 mio


2012: 23 mio


IEA WEO 2013[12]

2011

599 mio

2030

645 mio

2011

615 mio

2030

324 mio

2011

24 mio

2030

0 mio

IEA WEO 2012[13]

2010

589 mio

2030

655 mio

2010

628 mio

2030

334 mio

2010

29 mio

2030

0 mio

IEA WEO 2011[14]

2009

586 mio

2030

645 mio

2009

675 mio

2030

376 mio

2009

31 mio

2030

10 mio

IEA WEO 2010[15]

2009

585

2030

652 mio

2009

799 mio

2030

545 mio.

2009

31 mio

2030

10 mio


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Access to Electricity Worldwide (% of Population)

Source

Present (data from)

Future

Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

Total

2010 - 83%

2018: 90%

Urban

2018 - 97%

Rural

2010 - 70%

2018 - 80%


Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]

Total

2010 - 83%

2017 - 89%

Urban

2017 - 97%

Rural

2017 - 79%


Global Tracking Framework 2018[25] Total 2016 - 88% Urban 2016 -  88% Rural - 48% Total 2030 - 92%
IEA WEO 2017[23] Total 2000 - 73% Total 2016 - 86%
Total 2030 - 92%
Global Tracking Framework 2017[6] 2014 - 85,3%
IEA WEO 2016[7]
2014 - 79%




IEO WEO 2015[26]

2013
83%





Global Tracking Framework 2015[8]

total 2012: 85,0%





Global Tracking Framwork (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

Total 2010: 83%

Rural 2010: 70%

Urban 2010: 95%



University Denver, Paterns of Potential Human Progress (PPHP) 2013[28]

Total 2010: 78%



Total 2035: 89% Total 2060: 95%
IEA WEO 2012[13]

Total 2010: 81%



Total 2030: 88%
IEA WEO 2014[10] Total 2012: 82%




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Access to Electricity Regional (% of Population)

Source

Africa

Asia

Latin America

Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]  Total 2018

Sub Saharan Africa - 47%

Sub Saharan Africa in 2010 - 34%


Eastern Asia and South-eastern Asia > 98%

Central Asia and Southern Asia > 92%


Latin America and the Caribbean > 98%

IEA African Energy Outlook 2019[22][22]

2018

North Africa - ~100%

Sub-Saharan Africa - 45%

West Africa - 53%

Southern Africa - 48%



Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]
Total 2017 

Central & South Asia 91%

Eastern & Southeastern Asia 98%

Latin America and the Caribbean 98%


Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2015[29]

Total 2012

Sub-Saharan 35%
North Africa 100%

Caucasus and Central Asia 100%
East Asia 99%
Oceania 29%
South Asia 79%
South East Asia 90%
West Asia 93%

Latin America and Caribbean 96%

Rural 2012

Sub-Saharan 15%
North Africa 100%

Caucasus and Central Asia 100%
East Asia 99%
Oceania 17%
South Asia 70%
South East Asia 83%
West Asia 80%

Latin America and Caribbean 87%

Urban
2012

Sub-Saharan 69%
North Africa 100%

Caucasus and Central Asia 100%
East Asia 99%
Oceania 71%
South Asia 97%
South East Asia 98%
West Asia 98%

Latin America and Caribbean 99%

Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

Total

  • Sub-Saharan 32%
  • North Africa 99%
  • Caucasus a Central 100%
  • East Asia 98%
  • Oceania 25%
  • South Asia 75%
  • South East Asia 88%
  • West Asia 91%
  • Latin America and Caribbean 95%

Rural

  • Sub-Saharan 14%
  • North Africa 99%
  • Caucasus a Central 99%
  • East Asia 97%
  • Oceania 14%
  • South Asia 67%
  • South East Asia 80%
  • West Asia 78%
  • Latin America and Caribbean 84%

Urban

  • Sub-Saharan 63%
  • North Africa 100%
  • Caucasus a Central 100%
  • East Asia 98%
  • Oceania 65%
  • South Asia 94%
  • South East Asia 97%
  • West Asia 97%
  • Latin America and Caribbean 98%


Sub-Saharan Africa

Developing Asia

Latin America

IEA WEO 2017[23]

2000 - 34%

2016 - 52%

2030 - 64%

2000 - 67%

2016 - 89%

2030 - 99%

2000 - 87%

2016 - 97 %

2030 - 99%
IEA WEO 2016[7]
2014 - 35%

2014 - 86%

2014 - 95%

IEA WEO 2015[10]


Total Asia 2013: 85%

2013 95%

IEA WEO 2014[10]

2012 32%

2040 

2012 83%


2012 95%


IEA WEO 2012[13]

2010 32%

2030 52%

2010 82%

2030 92%

2010 94%

2030 100%

IEA WEO 2011[14]

2009 31%

2030 51%

2009 81%

2030 91%

2009 93%

2030 98%

IEA WEO 2010[15] 2009 31% 2030 50% 2009 78% 2030 88% 2009 73% 2030 98%


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Access to Clean Cooking Energy

Facts on Cooking Energy


People Relying on Traditional Biomass Worldwide (Absolute Numbers)

Source
Present (data from)
Future
Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

2010: 3 billion

2018: 2.8 billion (2.4-3.3)

2030 - 2.3 billion
Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]

2010 - 2.96 billion

2017 - 2.90 billion

2030 - 2.2 billion
Poor People's Energy Outlook 2018[4] 2018 - 3 billion
IEA WEO 2017[23] 2017 - 2.5 billion 2030 - 2.3 billion
The Energy Progress Report 2018[25] 2016 - 2.98 billion
Global Tracking Framework 2017[6]
2014 - 3.04 billion

IEA WEO 2016[7]
2014 - 2.7 billion
1.8 billion in 2040
Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2015[29]
2012 - about 2.9 billion

IEA WEO 2014[10]
  2012 - 2,679 mio

IEA WEO 2013[12]

2011 – 2.642 billion1

2030 – 2.524 billion

IEA WEO 2012[13]

2010 - 2.588 billion

2030 - 2.595 billion

IEA WEO 2011[14]

2009 – 2.662 billion

2030 – 2.715 billion

IEA WEO 2010[15]

2009 - 2.679 billion

2030 - 2.8 billion
IIASA GEA 2012[30]

2009 about 2.7 billion

(Based on IEA 2010)

Practical Action 2012[16]

2010 – nearly 3 billion

2030 – 3 billion

Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC)[31]

2009 (solid fuels) about 3 billion


WHO 2011[32]

2009 (solid fuels) about 3 billion


UN Energy[33]

2013 (solid fuels) about 3 billion


AGECC 2010[20]

2009 (solid fuels) appr. 3 billion


UN GA 2010[17]

2009/2010 - 3 billion


1 Increased number of people relying on traditional use of biomass (from WEO 2012 to WEO 2013) is caused by population number upward revision for India.


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Cooking with Traditional Biomass Worldwide (% of Population)

Source Present Future
Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

2010 - 44% 

2018 - 37% 





Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]
2017 - 40%

2030 - 26%


IEA WEO 2017[23]

2017 - 2.5 billion 

(38% of global population)





IEA WEO 2016[7]
2014: 2.742 billion (38%)


2030: 2.585 billion 2040: 2.159 billion

IEA WEO 2014[10]

Total 2012:

2,7 billion people (38%)





IEA WEO 2012[13]

Total 2010: 49%



Total 2030: 39%



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People Relying on Traditional Biomass Regional (Absolute Numbers)

Source

Sub-Saharan Africa

Developing Asia

Latin America

Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

2010 - 750 million (730–750)

2018 - 890 million (870–910)


Eastern and South-eastern Asia:

2010 - 1.0 billion (0.8–1.2)

2018 - 0.8 billion (0.5–1.1)

Central and Southern Asia:

2010 - 1.11 billion (0.9–1.3)

2018 - 1 billion (0.7-1.3) 




Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]

2010 - <750 Million

2017 - ~900 Million

2030 - ~900 Million
2030 - >1.2 Billion

IEA Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2019[21]



Southeast Asia:

2040 - 175 Million



IEA African Energy Outlook 2019[22]
2018 - 900 million 2030 - 1 billion



IEA WEO 2017[23]

2015 - 848 million

2017 - 780 million

2030 - 910 million

2015 - 1874 million

2017 - 1.65 billio

2030 - 1338 million  2015 - 59 million 2030 - 45 million
IEA WEO 2016[7]

2014: 792 million    

2030: 908 million 2040: 844 million 2014: 1.875 billion 2030: 1.600 billion 2040: 1.242 billion 2014: 65 million 2030: 65 2040: 60

IEA WEO 2014[10]

2012

728 mio

2040

650 mio

2012

1,875 mio


2012

68 mio


IEA WEO 2013[12]

2011

696 mio

2030

881 mio

2011

1,869 mio

2030

1,582 mio

2011

68 mio

2030

53 mio

IEA WEO 2012[13]

2010

696 mio

2030

883 mio

2010

1,814 mio

2030

1,640 mio

2010

65 mio

2030

62 mio

IEA WEO 2011[14]

2009

653 mio

2030

918 mio

2009

1,921 mio

2030

1,769 mio

2009

85 mio

2030

79 mio

IEA WEO 2010[15]

2009

653 mio

2030

918 mio

2009

1.937 mio

2030

1.769 mio

2009

85 mio

2030

79 mio


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Cooking with Traditional Biomass Regional (% of Population)

Source

Sub-Saharan Africa

Developing Asia

Latin America

Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1] 2018 - 85%




IEA African Energy Outlook 2019[22][22]
2018 - 70%




IEA WEO 2017[23] 2015 - 71% 2030 - 54% 2015 - 49% 2030 - 31% 2015 - 12% 2030 - 8%

IEA WEO 2016[7]

2014: 81%    


2014: 50%


2014: 14%


IEA WEO 2014[10]

2012 80%



2012 51%


2012 15%


IEA WEO 2012[13]

2010 81%

2030 65%

2010 51%

2030 39%

2010 14%

2030 11%

IEA WEO 2011[14]

2009 78%

2030 67%

2009 54%

2030 41%

2009 19%

2030 14%

IEA WEO 2010[15]

2009 80% 2030 70% 2009 55% 2030 62% 2009 18% 2030 14%


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Access to Non-solid-biofuels Worldwide (% of Population)

Source Present
Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2015[29]
Total 2012: 59%
Rural 2012: 27%
Urban 2012: 87%

Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

Total 2010: 59%

Rural 2010: 35%

Urban 2010: 84%


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Access to Non-solid Fuels Regional (% of Population)

Source

Africa

Asia

Latin America

Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All 2015) [29]

Total 2012

Sub-Saharan 18%
North Africa 99%

Caucasus and Central Asia 85%
East Asia 56%
Oceania 34%
South Asia 36%
South East Asia 54%
West Asia 95%

Latin America and Caribbean 86%

Rural
2012

Sub-Saharan 7%
North Africa 97%

Caucasus and Central Asia 74%
East Asia 17%
Oceania 16%
South Asia 13%
South East Asia 31%
West Asia 87%

Latin America and Caribbean 52%

Urban
2012

Sub-Saharan 37%
North Africa 100%

Caucasus and Central Asia 98%
East Asia 89%
Oceania 83%
South Asia 83%
South East Asia 81%
West Asia 98%

Latin America and Caribbean 94%

Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

Total

  • Sub-Saharan 19%
  • North Africa 100%
  • Caucasus a Central 85%
  • East Asia 55%
  • Oceania 31%
  • South Asia 40%
  • South East Asia 48%
  • West Asia 95%
  • Latin America and Caribbean 86%

Rural

  • Sub-Saharan 6%
  • North Africa 99%
  • Caucasus a Central 74%
  • East Asia 35%
  • Oceania 21%
  • South Asia 23%
  • South East Asia 27%
  • West Asia 86%
  • Latin America and Caribbean 57%

Urban

  • Sub-Saharan 42%
  • North Africa 100%
  • Caucasus a Central 98%
  • East Asia 76%
  • Oceania 73%
  • South Asia 78%
  • South East Asia 77%
  • West Asia 99%
  • Latin America and Caribbean 94%


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Access to Clean Cooking Fuels and Technologies (% of Population)

Source Present Future
Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2020[1]

2010 - 56% (52-61%)

2018 - 63% (56-68%)

Urban:

2018 - 83% (76-87%)

Rural:

2018 -  37% (30-45%)

2030 - 70%


IEA Southeast Asia Energy Outlook 2019[21]

Southeast Asia

2010 - 45%

2018 - 62%





IEA African Energy Outlook 2019[22][22]

Africa

2015 - 15%

2018 - 17%





Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019[3]

2010 - 57%

2017 - 61%

Urban:

2019 - ~83%

Rural:

2019 - ~34%



The Energy Progress Report 2018[25] 2016 - 59.3%



Global Tracking Framework 2017[6]
 2014 - 57.4%




Global Tracking Framework 2015 [29]
 2012 - 56.5%




PPHP 2013[28]

Total 2010: 57%



Total 2035: 78%

Total 2060: 88%


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Mortality from Household Air Pollution

In the year 2012, household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels was responsible for 4.3 million deaths. This makes this risk factor the largest environmental contributor to ill health. The importance of household air pollution as a public health threat varies drastically according to the level of development: in low- and middle-income countries, household air pollution is responsible for almost 10% of the mortality, while the same risk factor is only responsible for 0.2% of deaths in high-income countries.[34]


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Total Deaths by Region (absolute numbers)

Global
Africa
South East Asia
Europe
America
Eastern Mediterranean
Western Pacific
4,3 mio
600,000
1,69 mio
99,000
81,000
200,000
1,62 mio

Source: WHO (2014): Burden of Disease from Household Air Polllution for 2012. [35]

Global: 3.5 million premature deaths each year.[36]


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Deaths Attributable to HAP by Age and Sex

Children < 5yr: 534,00 (13%)

Women >25yr: 1,767,000 (41%)

Men >25 yr: 1,991,000 (46%)


Although women experience higher personal exposure levels than men and therefore higher relative risk to develop adverse health outcomes due to their greater involvement in daily cooking activities, the absolute burden is larger in men due to larger underlying disease rates in men.[37]


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Necessary Investment for Universal Access to Modern Energy Services

As part of WEO-2017 a new Energy for All Case is planned, which will highlight the progress achieved since this analysis from WEO-2012 and the gap left to be covered.[38]

Additional Average Annual Investment Needed for Total / Universal Energy Access

Source

Annually

comments

Global Tracking Framework(UN SE4All) 2015[29]

Required 49,4 billion USD p.a
actual 9,1 billion USD p.a.
Gap 40,3 billion USD p.a.


Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

33.9 billion USD



IEA WEO 2011[14]

from 2010 34 billion USD

(in total 1 trillion USD (296 billion USD in new policies) 640 billion USD)


AGECC 2010[20]

35-40 billion USD


Pachauri et al 2012[39]

65 – 86 billion USD

(only grid–access and LPG-like cooking)


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Electricity

Additional average annual investment needed for total universal electricity access regional, in billion USD

Source

Global

Africa

Asia

Latin America

Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2015 [29]

Required to 2030:
45 bn USD p.a
actual 9 bn USD p.a.
Gap 36 bn USD p.a.




Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

30.1 bn USD

SSA 19.1 bn USD

EA & Oce 0.4 bn USD

SA 9.2 bn USD

SEA 1.3 bn USD


IEA WEO 2011[14]

30.5 bn USD

SSA 18.5 bn USD

Dev. A. 11.5 bn USD

only India 6.4 bn USD

0.3 bn USD

Ruijven et al. 2012[40]

From 2010 - 2030

238 – 400 bn USD

SSA

6.1 – 10.2 bn USD

Asia

1.4 – 2.5 bn USD

LA

4.3 – 7.1 bn USD

SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa, Dev. A.: Developing Asia, EA: East Asia, Oce: Oceania, SA: Southern Asia, SEA: South-Eastern Asia


Electricity Access for All - Proposed share of necessary annual investment needed per technology

Source Technology Investment needed per year

IEA WEO 2011[14]

  • In Total
  • On-grid electrification
  • Mini-grid electrification
  • Off-grid electrification
  • 30.5 billion USD/year
  • 11 billion USD/year
  • 12 billion USD/year
  • 7 billion USD/year


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Cooking Energy

Additional average annual investment needed to achieve universal access to clean cooking facilities, regional, in billion USD

Source

Global

Africa

Asia

Latin America

Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2015[29]
4.4 bn USD total investment p.a.



Global Tracking Framework (UN SE4All) 2013[27]

3.8 bn USD

SSA 1.1 bn USD

ME & NAf 0.01 bn USD


EA & Oce 0.9 bn USD

SA 1.2 bn USD

SEA 0.4 bn USD

0.2 bn USD

IEA WEO 2011[14]

3.5 bn USD

SSA 1.1 bn USD

Dev. A. 2.3 bn USD

only India 0.8 bn USD

only China 0.8 bn USD

0.2 bn USD

SSA: Sub-Saharan Africa, Dev. A.: Developing Asia, EA: East Asia, Oce: Oceania, SA: Southern Asia, SEA: South-Eastern Asia, ME: Middle East, NAf: North Africa


Clean Cooking Facilities for All - Proposed share of necessary annual investment needed per technology

Source Technology Necessary annual investment

IEA WEO 2011[14]

  • In Total
  • LPG Cookstoves
  • Biomass systems
  • Biomass Cookstoves
  • 3.5 billion USD/year
  • 0.9 billion USD/year
  • 1.8 billion USD/year
  • 0.8 billion USD/year


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Further Information


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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 International Energy Agency (IEA), International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), The World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Tracking SDG7 – The Energy Progress Report 2020. Retrieved from: https://irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2020/May/SDG7Tracking_Energy_Progress_2020.pdf
  2. International Energy Agency (IEA). (2019). World Energy Outlook 2019 Executive Summary. Retrieved from: https://webstore.iea.org/download/summary/2467?fileName=English-Summary-WEO2019.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 International Energy Agency (IEA), International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), World Bank (WB), World Health Organization (WHO). (2019). Tracking SDG7: The Energy Progress Report 2019. Retrieved from: https://trackingsdg7.esmap.org/data/files/download-documents/2019-Tracking%20SDG7-Full%20Report.pdf
  4. 4.0 4.1 Stevens, L. Mele, P. Hooper, L. Santangelo, E. Taylor, C. & Leopold, A. (2019). Poor People’s Energy Outlook 2018. Retrieved from: https://tinyurl.com/y35mgvnd
  5. Population without access to electricity falls below 1 billion.” [Online]. Available: https://www.iea.org/newsroom/news/2018/october/population-without-access-to-electricity-falls-below-1-billion.html. [Accessed: 18-Jan-2019].
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Global Tracking Framework Report 2017. http://gtf.esmap.org/data/files/download-documents/eegp17-01_gtf_full_report_for_web_0516.pdf Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Global Tracking Framework Report 2017" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Global Tracking Framework Report 2017" defined multiple times with different content
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 International Energy Agency, ed. World Energy Outlook 2016. Paris: OECD, 2016. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WorldEnergyOutlook2016ExecutiveSummaryEnglish.pdf.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Global Tracking Framework Report 2015. http://gtf.esmap.org/data/files/download-documents/gtf-2105-full-report.pdf
  9. OECD/IEA (2015): World Energy Outlook http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/energy/world-energy-outlook-2015_weo-2015-en
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 OECD/IEA (2014): World Energy Outlook 2014 http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2014/
  11. http://trackingenergy4all.worldbank.org/~/media/GIAWB/GTF/Documents/GTF-2013-Full-Report.pdf
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Source: OECD/IEA (2013): World Energy Outlook 2013. http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2013/
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 Source: OECD/IEA (2012): World Energy Outlook 2012. http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2012/
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 Source: OECD/IEA (2011): Energy for All – Financing Access for the Poor. Special early excerpt of the World Energy Outlook 2011. Updated estimates of the OECD/IEA 2010. http://www.iea.org/papers/2011/weo2011_energy_for_all.pdf
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