Global Tracking Framework for Measuring Energy Access

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Introduction

Energy Access used to be defined by whether or not a household had access to electricity or not. However, this over-simplistic criteria ignores the many forms in which people access and use energy. For example, many grid connected household only have access to electricity at a low voltage or their supply might be intermittent and therefore restrict their electricity usage to only a few hours a day. Also, defining energy access through grid connection does not take into account these energy needs for cooking and heating, which are often met through solid or liquid fuels, rather than through electricity. A further factor which needs to be considered in terms of energy access is the availability of energy for businesses, community institutions, such as schools, health facilities, government buildings, public buildings as well as street lights.[1] In order to take into consideration these numerous different factors, all of which contribute towards energy access, a more holistic framework for measuring and defining energy access was needed.


The Global Tracking Framework and the Multi-Tier Framework

The Multi-Tier Framework (MTF) for measuring energy access was first introduced in the 2013 Global Tracking Framework (GTF) report, written by the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) together with other organisations and programs including Energizing Development, Lighting Africa, Practical Action, The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, the UN Development Programme, the UN Industrial Development Organization, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization.[2] The MTF was developed within the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative, due to the shortcomings of a binary energy access assessment, in which a household was either defined as having access to electricity or not. The aim of the framework is to “to monitor and evaluate energy access by following a multidimensional approach.”[3] This is done by measuring energy access using a multi-tiered-spectrum which ranges from Tier 0 (no access) to Tier 5 (the highest level of access).[3] The data gathered through the GTF can then be used to measure global progress towards the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) which aims to achieve universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030.[4]

The four main objectives of the MTF are to:

  • “Establish a global baseline of energy access, starting in 10-15 high access deficit countries based on the multifaceted definition according to MTF;
  • Transfer capacity to national statistical offices to keep tracking progress toward SE4ALL goals and SDG in the future and
  • Continue improving tools and capacities for tracking progress towards reaching the SE4ALL objective of universal access to modern energy services by 2030, based on MTF and;
  • Provide reliable data on energy sector that can meet needs of multiple stakeholders, including government, regulators, utilities, project developers, civil society organizations, developmental agencies, financial institutions, appliance manufacturers, international programs and the academia.”[4]


Moving from a Binary Measurement to a Multi-Tire Measurement.png

 

The GTF includes three main sections. One for assessing household access to energy, one for assessing the access to energy for productive engagement and one category for assessing the access to energy for community facilities. Energy access for households is further divided into access to electricity, cooking solutions and space heating. Access to energy for community facilities looks at street lighting, health facilities, education facilities, community buildings and public offices.


Structure of the Global Tracking Framework.png


An overall energy access level for households/productive use/community facilities can be obtained by calculating the average tier based on all of the individual categories within each index. Further data analysis could combine the results to calculate the average energy access level of a neighbourhood or region, and then comparing it to other regions or tracking the progress of that region over time.[1]

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 Household Energy

Access to Electricity

In the GTF household access to electricity is measured based on the capacity, duration, reliability, quality, affordability, legality and health and safety impacts. The criteria are technology neutral and focus only on the impacts for the consumer.[1] Table 1 below shows how the different tiers for access to household electricity supply are determined within each category. In order to determine the overall energy tier of a household the average of all tiers is calculated.


 Table 1: Multi-Tier Matrix for Access to Household Electricity Supply[1]

 

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Capacity

Power

 

≥ 3W

≥ 50W

≥ 200W

≥ 800W

≥ 2kW

AND Daily capacity

 

≥ 12Wh

≥ 200Wh

≥ 1.0 kWh

≥ 3.4 kWh

≥ 8.2 kWh

OR Service

 

Lighting of 1,000 lmhr per day and phone charging

Electrical lighting, air circulation, television and phone charging are possible

 

 

 

Duration

Hours per day

 

≥ 4hrs

≥ 4hrs

≥ 8hrs

≥ 16 hrs

≥ 23 hrs

Hours per evening

 

 

 

 

≥ 4 hrs

≥ 4 hrs

Reliability

 

 

 

 

 

≤ 14 disruptions per week

≤ 3 disruptions per week of total duration < 2hrs

Quality

 

 

 

 

 

Voltage problems do not affect use of desired appliances

Affordability

 

 

 

 

Cost of standard consumption package of 365 kWh per annum is < than 5% of household income

Legality

 

 

 

 

 

Bill is paid to the utility, prepaid card seller of authorized representative

Health and Safety

 

 

 

 

 

Absence of past accidents and perception of high risk in the future.

*The minimum power capacity rating in Watts are indicated, particularly for Tier 1 and Tier 2 as the efficiency of end-user appliances is critical to determining the real level capacity and thus the type of electricity service that can be performed.


While usually having good access to electricity supply results in a better access to energy services the two do not necessarily come together. A household could have good electricity supply, but not have access to household appliances, or vice versa. Therefore, Table 2 shows a separate multi-tier matrix for measuring a household’s access to electricity services.


Table 2: Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Household Electricity Services[1]

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Tier Criteria

Not applicable

Task lighting, Phone charging

General lighting, Television, Fan (if needed)

Tier 2 AND Any medium-power appliances

Tier 3 AND Any high-power appliances

Tier 4 AND Any very high power appliances

 

Table 3 shows the multi-tier matrix for accessing electricity consumption. This matrix is closely linked to the one for energy services.[1]


Table 3: Multi-tier Matrix for Electricity Consumption[1]

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Annual Consumption levels, in kWh

<4.5

≥ 4.5

≥ 73

≥ 365

≥ 1,250

≥ 3,000

Daily consumption levels, in Wh

<12

≥ 12

≥ 200

≥ 1,000

≥ 3,425

≥ 8,219

 







Access to Cooking

The GTF measures household access to cooking based on the indoor air quality, cookstove efficiency, convenience, safety of the primary fuel, affordability, quality of the primary fuel and the availability of the primary fuel.

Table 4 shows the updated version of the matrix as used for accessing access to cooking solutions. 

Table 4: Multi-Level Matrix for Access to Cooking Solutions [5]

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Cooking Exposure

ISO’s voluntary
performance targets
(Default Ventilation)
PM2.5 (mg/MJd)
CO (g/MJd) gn

>1030
>18.3

<=1030
<=18.3


<=481
<=11.5


<=218
<=7.2


<=62
<=4.4


<=5
<=3.0


High Ventilation
PM2.5 (mg/MJd)
CO (g/MJd)

>1489
>26.9

<=1489
<=26.9

<=733
<=16.0

<=321
<=10.3

<=92
<=6.2

<=7
<=4.4

Low Ventilation
PM2.5 (mg/MJd)
CO (g/MJd)

>550
>9.9


550
<=9.9


<=252
<=5.5


<=115
<=3.7


<=32
<=2.2

<=2
<=1.4

Cookstove Efficiency 

ISO’s voluntary
performance Targets

 <=10%

 >10%

>20% 

>30%

>40%

>50%

Convenience

Fuel acquisition and preparation time (hrs/week)

>0 7


< 7


< 3


< 1.5


< 0.5


Stove preparation time (min/meal)

>= 15

< 15

< 10

< 5

< 2

Safety 

 

 Serious Accidents over the past 12 months

No accidents over the past year that required professional medical attendance

Affordability

Fuel cost >= 5% of household expenditure (income)

Levelised cost of cooking solution (including cooking fuel) < 5% of household income

Fuel Availability

Primary fuel available less then 80% of the year

Primary fuel is readily available 80% of the year

Primary fuel is readily available throughout the year

*ISO = International Organization for Standardization, PM = Particulate Matter, CO = carbon monoxide, MJd = Mega Joule delivered 


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Access to Space-Heating

In many households, space heating is achieved through the same means as cooking. However, space heating is also often achieved (or augmented) through additional heating systems such as electric heating, fuel-based centralized district heating, fuel-based standalone heating, and direct solar heating. Therefor space heating has been assigned its own individual multi-tier framework, separate from the cooking framework. This allows for an individual access to energy for space heating index to be calculated, based on the categories shown in Table 5.[6]


Table 5: Multi-Tier Matrix for Access to Space Heating[1]

 

Level 0

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Level 5

Capacity

 

Personal space around individuals is heater

At least one room is heated

All rooms of the house are heated

Duration

 

 

 

At least half the time when needed (>50% of the time)

Most hours when needed (>75% of the time)

Almost all hours when needed (>95% of the time)

Quality

 

 

 

Comfortable temperature ≥ 50% of the time

Comfortable temperature ≥ 75% of the time

Comfortable temperature all of the time

Convenience (Fuel collection time)

 

 

≤ 7 hrs/wk

≤ 3 hrs/wk

≤ 1.5 hrs/wk

≤ 0.5 hrs/wk

Affordability

 

 

 

Max 2 times grid tariff

Reliability

 

 

 

≤ 3 disruptions per day

≤ 7 disruptions per week

≤ 3 disruptions per week of total duration < 2 hours

Indoor Air Quality

PM 2.5 ('µ'g/m3)

 

[To be specified by a competent agency, such as WHO, based on health risks]

[To be specified by a competent agency, such as WHO, based on health risks]

[To be specified by a competent agency, such as WHO, based on health risks]

< 35 (WHO, IT -1)

< 10 (WHO guideline)

CO (mg/m3)

 

< 7 (WHO guideline)

< 7 (WHO guideline)

Safety

 

 

 

 

No accidents over the past year that required professional medical attendance

*BLEENS= biogas, LPG, ethanol, natural gas and solar. CO = carbon monoxide, kWh = kilowatt hour, LPG = liquid petroleum gas, Max = maximum, Min = minimum, PM, particulate matter, W = Watts, WH = what-hours, WHO = World Health Organization


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Productive Use

“Productive uses of energy are defined as those that increase income or productivity, referred to as value-adding activities.”[1] This quite general definition makes is difficult to define an energy access framework for productive use, due to the many different types of energy requirements which might be encountered. The productive use framework shown in Table 6 was devised based on energy access experiences of individuals in productive engagements. It includes all of the major energy applications/impacts which were found to be relevant for productive use activities.[1]

 

Table 6: Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Energy for Productive Use[1]

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Capacity

Electricity

Power

 

≥ 3 W

≥ 50 W

≥ 200 W

≥ 800 W

≥ 2 kW

Daily supply capacity

 

≥ 12 Wh

≥ 200 Wh

≥ 1.0 kWh

≥ 3.4 kWh

≥ 8.2 kWh

Typical source

 

Solar lantern

Solar home system

Generator or mini-grid

Generator or grid

Grid

Non-Electric

 

 

 

Available non-electric energy partially meets requirements

Available non-electric energy largely meets the requirements

Available non-electric energy fully meets all requirements

Both

 

 

 

No relevant application is absent solely due to energy supply constraints

Duration of Daily Supply

Electricity

 

≥ 2 hrs

≥ 4 hrs

≥ 50% of working hours

Most working hours, ≥ 75 %

Almost all of working hours, ≥ 95%

Non-Electric

 

 

 

Available non-electric energy partially meets requirements

Available non-electric energy largely meets the requirements

Available non-electric energy fully meets all requirements

Both

 

 

 

Long working hours are not prevented solely by lack of adequate energy (capacity or duration)

Reliability

 

 

 

 

No reliability issues that have severe impact

No reliability issues or little impact

Quantity

 

 

 

 

No quality issues that have severe impact

No quality issues or little impact

Affordability

 

 

 

 

Variable cost of energy is less than two times the grid tariff

Variable cost of energy is less than the grid tariff

Legality

 

 

 

 

Energy bill is paid to the utility/pre-paid card seller/authorized representative/legal market operator

Convenience

 

 

 

 

Time and energy in securing and preparing energy does not cause severe impact

No convenience issues or little impact

Health (Indoor Air quality from use of fuels)

PM 2.5 ('µ'g(m3)

 

[To be specified by a competent agency, such as WHO, based on health risks]

[To be specified by a competent agency, such as WHO, based on health risks]

[To be specified by a competent agency, such as WHO, based on health risks]

< 35 (WHO, IT -1)

< 10 (WHO guideline)

CO (mg/m3)

 

< 7 (WHO guideline)

< 7 (WHO guideline)

'OR Use of fuels '(BLEENS)

 

 

Use of non-BLEENS solutions (if any) for heating in the open or with some extraction

Use of BLEENS of equivalent solutions only

Safety

 

 

 

 

Energy solutions have not caused any accidents over the past year that required professional medical assistance

Energy solutions have not caused any accidents over the past year.

*BLEENS = biogas, LPG, ethanol, natural gas and solar. CO = carbon monoxide, kWh = kilowatt hour, LPG = liquid petroleum gas, Max = maximum, Min = minimum, PM, particulate matter, W = Watts, WH = what-hours, WHO = World Health Organization

 

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Community Energy

Access to energy in community areas/facilities is very important for the socioeconomic development of a community. As an example, having access to energy can improve the quality of education and healthcare facilities by being able to power electric device, lights and heating systems. The huge diversity found in different communities in terms of their available facilities and resultants energy demands make it challenging to assemble a single comprehensive framework for community energy access. Due to this complex street lighting coverage energy access for community institutions have been assigned two separate frameworks. The multi-tier frameworks for energy access in community institutions (shown in Table 7) and street lighting (shown in Table 8) were devised based on surveys with community institutions, as well as community members using these institutions.[1]

 

Table 7: Multi-tier Matrix for Measuring Access in Community Institutions[1]

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Capacity

Electricity

Power

 

≥ 3 W

≥ 50 W

≥ 200 W

≥ 800 W

≥ 2 kW

Daily supply capacity

 

≥ 12 Wh

≥ 200 Wh

≥ 1.0 kWh

≥ 3.4 kWh

≥ 8.2 kWh

Typical source

 

Solar lantern

Solar home system

Generator or mini-grid

Generator or grid

Grid

Non-Electric

 

 

 

Available non-electric energy partially meets requirements

Available non-electric energy largely meets the requirements

Available non-electric energy fully meets all requirements

Both

 

 

 

No relevant application is absent solely due to energy supply constraints

Duration of Daily Supply

Electricity

 

≥ 2 hrs

≥ 4 hrs

≥ 50% of working hours

Most working hours, ≥ 75 %

Almost all of working hours, ≥ 95%

Non-Electric

 

 

 

Available non-electric energy partially meets requirements

Available non-electric energy largely meets the requirements

Available non-electric energy fully meets all requirements

Both

 

 

 

Long working hours are not prevented solely by lack of adequate energy (capacity or duration)

Reliability

 

 

 

 

No reliability issues that have severe impact

No reliability issues or little impact

Quantity

 

 

 

 

No quality issues that have severe impact

No quality issues or little impact

Affordability

 

 

 

 

Variable cost of energy is less than two times the grid tariff

Variable cost of energy is less than the grid tariff

Legality

 

 

 

 

Energy bill is paid to the utility/pre-paid card seller/authorized representative/legal market operator

Convenience

 

 

 

 

Time and energy in securing and preparing energy does not cause severe impact

No convenience issues or little impact

Health and Safety

Health: Use of fuels (BLEENS)

 

 

Use of non-BLEENS solutions (if any) for heating in the open or with some extraction

Use of BLEENS of equivalent solutions only

Safety

 

 

 

 

Energy solutions have not caused any accidents over the past year that required professional medical assistance

Energy solutions have not caused any accidents over the past year

 

 

Table 8: Multi-tier Matrix for Access to Street Lighting[1]

 

Tier 0

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3

Tier 4

Tier 5

Capacity

 

≥ 2 functional street lamp in the neighbourhood*

≥ 12% of the neighbourhood is covered by functional street lamps

≥ 50% of the neighbourhood is covered by functional street lamps

≥ 75% of the neighbourhood is covered by functional street lamps

≥ 95% of the neighbourhood is covered by functional street lamps

Durations

 

Street lighting functions for ≥ 2 hrs/day

Street lighting functions for ≥ 4 hrs/day

Street lighting functions for ≥ 50% of night hrs/day

Street lighting functions for ≥ 75% of night hrs/day

Street lighting functions for ≥ 95% of night hrs/day

Reliability

 

 

 

 

No reliability issues perceived by users

Quality

 

 

 

 

No brightness issues perceived by users

Health and Safety

 

 

 

 

No perceived risk of electrocution due to poor installation or maintenance

*Neighbourhood is defined as area within a distance of 0.5 km from the household

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Outlook

Proposal for Extending the Multi-Tier Framework 2018 by Boie I., Steinbach J., Christ C., Ashley-Belbin, N., Lösch, O., Denishchenkova, A,  Ordonez J. (2018). Next level sustainable energy provision in line with people’s needs - A proposal for extending the Multi-Tier Framework for monitoring the SDG7. Fraunhofer ISI, IREES GmbH commissioned by GIZ and supported by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), Karlsruhe, Germany.

  


Further Information


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References

The multi-tier matrices were taken from the ESMAP report Beyond Connections – Energy Access Redefined

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Bhatia, M. & Angelou, N., 2015. Beyond Connections - Energy Access Redefined, Washington: Energy Sector Management Assistance Program.
  2. Bhatia, M. & Angelou, N., 2014. Capturing the Multi-Dimensionality of Energy Access, s.l.: Live Wire.
  3. 3.0 3.1 ESMAP, n.d. Multi-Tier Framework for Measuring Energy Access. [Online] Available at: https://www.esmap.org/node/55526[Accessed 27 August 2016].
  4. 4.0 4.1 United Nations, 2015. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platforms. [Online] Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg7[Accessed 16 November 2016].
  5. MTF_Kenya_Energy_Access_Country_Diagnostic_Report_2020.pdf; https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/kenya-multi-tier-framework-mtf-survey
  6. defined in a manner that is consistent with the International Workshop Agreement on Cookstoves (IWA) tiers for measuring cookstove performance. To avoid any confusion with the IWA “tiers” for cookstoves,