Policy Framework and Energy Access Strategies in Mozambique
This articles provides an overview of the different policies and energy access strategies for electrification and renewable energy in Mozambique.
The prevailing legal instrument for electrification in Mozambique was the Electricity Law from 1997 (Law n.° 21/97) which has been updated in July 2022 to Law n.º 12/2022 to reflect the current social, technical and financial dynamics in Mozambique, with a emphasis on renewables. This law defines the general framework of the power sector and all activities related to production, distribution, transmission, consumption and storage of electricity, including export and import.
In December 2021, a new Regulation for Energy Access in Off-grid Areas was published and approved. This new regulation, active since January 24th, 2022, acts as support to the current legal framework in the off-grid energy sector in Mozambique. It is expected that this new framework:
- offers the private sector a clearer and more transparent process for the implementation of their off-grid electrification projects
- helps reach the electrification goals for 2030
- attracts more private investment
ARENE, the Energy Regulation Authority (Autoridade Reguladora de Energia), has the role of handling and coordinating all processes regarding approval for concessions before and after they have been submitted to the Minister for approval.
In May 2023, a resolution to this decree was approved which specifies the regulations for interconnection of mini-grids to the national grid, the regulations to standarise the tariff of energy supplied through mini-grids in off-grid areas, the regulation for technical and safety standards, and the regulation for quality of service and commercial relations. The regulation for concessions and a certified model for energy service providers are yet to be published.
Another important energy policy document that states the needs of energy access for the population and the productive sectors is Mozambique’s Energy Policy from 1998. Some of its main objectives are to promote economically viable programmes for the development of energy resources, ensure reliable energy supply, and to improve energy access in the domestic sector. The specifics on the implementation of the policy are better described in Mozambique’s National Electrification Strategy, updated from the Energy Sector Strategy written in 2000.
The following table shows the relevant regulations involved in the improvement of energy access in Mozambique.
National Strategies and Policies to Improve Energy Access
The central goal of national strategies in Mozambique is to achieve countrywide energy access by 2030. The Integrated Power Sector Master Plan from EDM is the main policy for Mozambique. It has a set goal to increase installed capacity to 6,001 MW by 2030 and 20% integration of renewable energy in the grid. The institutional, financial and technical approach to reach these goals is defined by the National Electrification Strategy (ENE). Mozambique’s state-owned utility, EDM has developed a strategy as well (often referred to as the Rural Electrification Strategy) to ensure the development of the energy sector in Mozambique and drive its growth as an important market in the Southern African region.
These initiatives are based on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 7. Read here more about SDG 7 and how energy contributes to the achievement of other SDGs
Below is a description of the most important plans and strategies active in 2021. For more information, consult the links to each strategy.
Electric Infrastructures Integrated Master Plan (Plano Director de Infraestruturas Eléctricas 2018-2043)
The main objective is to formulate a comprehensive 25 year national power system development plan for the period between 2018 and 2043, and to make it possible for governmental agencies to have access to the technical information on the planning of power generation, transmission and distribution. The plan forecasts a growth on electricity demand in 2043 from 3908 GWh to 35444 GWh and a growth in maximum installed capacity from 655 MW to 5950 MW. With a close cooperation with FUNAE, EDM plans to increase the number of electrified households from 1.3 million in 2017 to 4.6 million by 2043.
The total investment calculated by EDM to fulfil the Master Plan is approx. USD 34 billion. The plan also contains a list of recommendations for the financial management of the private sector and an environmental impact assessment.
To know more about the Integrated Master Plan visit: https://www.edm.co.mz/en/document/reports/integrated-master-plan-2018-2043
EDM Strategy 2018-2028
This strategy is implemented by EDM as an action to drive their growth as Mozambique’s utility, and improve the presence of the Mozambican energy market in the Southern African region. The strategy tackles three main priorities:
1. Achieving universal access to electricity in Mozambique
2. Drive Mozambique to become a Southern African energy hub
3. Ensure development of sustainable workforce in the energy sector .
This strategy proposed the creation of a new policy instrument called the Electrification Account, which is expected to be fully implemented by the Ministry of Economy and Finance by 2020. This new fund will serve as a subsidy instrument in the event that current electricity tariffs are not sufficient to fund the electrification targets on their own.
To know more about the EDM Strategy visit: https://www.edm.co.mz/sites/default/files/documents/Reports/EDM_STRATEGY_2018_2028.pdf
National Electrification Strategy (ENE) - Energy for All (Programa Nacional de Energia Para Todos)
The Government of Mozambique launched this strategy to provide electricity access to more than 10 million Mozambicans by 2024. This program defines the roles of the four main institutions responsible for reaching the electrification goals: MIREME as a process planner; EDM as the main institution implementing projects to improve energy access within the grid and its expansion; FUNAE as the main body responsible for rural electrification; and the Ministry of Economy and Finance as an allocator of funds for the projects in the scope.
One of the resulting initiatives from this strategy is the renewable energy auction mechanism called Promoçao de Leilões de Energias Renovaveis (“Promotion of Renewable Energy Auctions” -PROLER). PROLER is a public tender model launched in 2018, contracted by MIREME and financially supported by the European Union through the AFD – Agence Française de Développement. The mechanism is a driver for private investment in the development of solar and wind projects to be connected to the National Power Grid. There are three solar PV and one wind power projects covered in PROLER’s schedule. The first solar PV project was launched in October 2020 and for the rest of the projects, viability studies will be carried from 2021 to 2022.
During the African Energy Forum celebrated in June 2022, EDM partnered with the International Finance Cooperation (IFC) from the World Bank Group to develop four solar PV and battery storage facilities with an expected total production of 50 MW. These plants are planned to be part of the National Grid.
For more information about the National Electrification Strategy and PROLER visit: http://proler.gov.mz/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/EDM_Novas-Energias_Brochura_A4.pdf
For more information about the PROLER mechanism and to review the status of current tenders visit PROLER’s main page at: http://proler.gov.mz/
The following table shows a summarized overview of the strategies with goals of development of energy access in Mozambique and the entities that created them.
|EDM||Electricity Law (Law No. 21/91) - review||Regulation of renewable energy||2017-present|
|Gov. Of Mozambique
||Electric Infrastructures Integrated Master Plan (o Plano Director||Power generation, transmission and distribution planning for 25 years
|Gov. Of Mozambique
|National Electrification Strategy (ENE) -||“Providing high-quality, affordable and sustainable electricity by 2030”
||2018 - 2030|
- Mozambique- Country Information
- Mozambique Electricity Situation
- Institutional Framework in Mozambique
- Webinar - The new regulation for energy access in off-grid areas in Mozambique" (March 2022)
- EDM, ‘Legislation | EDM - Electricidade de Moçambique’, accessed 19 May 2021, https://www.edm.co.mz/en/website/page/legislation
- Law No. 12/2022. BOLETIM DA REPÚBLICA. https://www.lerenovaveis.org/contents/lerpublication/lei-12_2022-lei-de-electricidade.pdf
- Government of Mozambique, Decreto n.º 93/2021, Regulamento de Acesso à Energia nas Zonas Fora da Redehttps://www.lerenovaveis.org/contents/lerpublication/decreto-93-2021_regulamento-de-acesso-a-energia-nas-zonas-fora-da-rede_6586.pdf
- ARENE - "Energy Regulatory Authority publishes rules that regulate the energy supply subsector in off-grid areas" (2023) https://arene.org.mz/autoridade-reguladora-de-energia-publica-normas-que-regulamentam-o-subsector-de-fornecimento-de-energia-nas-zonas-fora-da-rede/
- Mozambique_Renewable_Energy.Pdf’. https://www.powerutilityleadership.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Mozambique_Renewable_Energy.pdf
- ALER, ‘Renováveis Em Moçambique’, 2021, https://www.lerenovaveis.org/contents/lerpublication/aler_mar2021_resumo-renovaveis-em-mocambique-2021.pdf
- ‘EDM_STRATEGY_2018_2028.Pdf’, https://www.edm.co.mz/sites/default/files/documents/Reports/EDM_STRATEGY_2018_2028.pdf
- EDM, ‘INTEGRATED MASTER PLAN 2018-2043 | EDM - Electricidade de Moçambique’, https://www.edm.co.mz/en/document/reports/integrated-master-plan-2018-2043
- ‘EDM_STRATEGY_2018_2028.Pdf’. https://www.edm.co.mz/sites/default/files/documents/Reports/EDM_STRATEGY_2018_2028.pdf
- ‘Estratégia Nacional de Eletrificação’, n.d., https://rise.esmap.org/data/files/library/mozambique/Documents/Energy%20Access/Mozambique_Rural%20Electrification%20Strategy%202018-30_ENG.docx
- EDM, ‘Lançado Programa Nacional de Energia Para Todos Até 2030 | EDM - Electricidade de Moçambique’, https://www.edm.co.mz/pt/website-mobile/article/not%C3%ADcia/lan%C3%A7ado-programa-nacional-de-energia-para-todos-at%C3%A9-2030
- Government of Mozambique, ‘Programa Nacional de Energia Para Todos: Novas Energias’, n.d., http://proler.gov.mz/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/EDM_Novas-Energias_Brochura_A4.pdf
- AEF, "IFC and EDM Partner to Increase Access to Renewable Energy in Mozambique", https://www.africa-energy-forum.com/press-release-ifc-edm-partner-increase-access-renewable-energy-mozambique