Difference between revisions of "Mozambique Energy Situation"

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== 1. Situation Analysis  ==
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{{CES Country|CES Country Name=Mozambique
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|CES Country Capital=Maputo
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|CES Country Region Africa=Sub-Saharan Africa
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|CES Country Coordinates=25.9500° S, 32.5833° E
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}}
  
== 1.1. Energy situation  ==
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<br/>
  
== Potentials  ==
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<br/>
  
Mozambique has considerable energy resources with an estimated hydropower potential of 12,000 MW and also gas reserves (estimated at reaching 700 billion cubic metres) and vast coal reserves (estimated to reach 140 million TJ) with the potential of generating approx. 500 MW and 5,000 MW respectively.
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= Introduction<br/> =
  
== Demand and Supply  ==
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Mozambique is one of the poorest countries of the world with a population of 28.8 million people and almost 70% of the population living on less than USD 1.90 per day (2016).&nbsp;The Human Development Index (HDI) 2016 ranks Mozambique 181 out of 188 countries - dropping down from 180 in 2015. &nbsp;As household budget survey conducted by the Mozambican government in 2016 reveals that the rural-urban gap and income disparity have considerably increased since 2010.<br/>
  
Peak electricity demand was 416 MW in 2008 with an energy consumption of approximately 3,032 GWh. The increase in power consumption has been significant during recent years with average annual increases in the order of 6 to 8&nbsp;% over the last 10 years. These figures reflect supply to domestic, commercial and industrial consumers in the national power network supplied by Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM) the national power company. Approx. 136 MW (61 MW from hydro and 75 MW from diesel and gas) are supplied by EdM's own generation, mainly by ageing plants requiring refurbishment. The remaining demand is supplied through a purchase agreement with Cahora Bassa, a hydropower plant at the Zambezi River with an installed capacity of 2,075 MW. The number of consumers has grown with more than 10% annually since the year 2000 and was about 614,510 in 2008. At present still only 13.2% of the population has access to electricity. Power demand forecasts indicate that with an average projected growth rate of 6% p.a. Mozambique will reach a maximum demand of 1,350 MW by 2030 and a projected consumption of 8,300 GWh. From 2009 until 2013, it is foreseen that demand will reach 560 MW by 2013. For meeting the country‘s electricity needs in a timely manner, it is imperative given that the Cahora Bassa‘s reserve for domestic market requirements of 400 MW is almost exhausted. Therefore it is important that stakeholders urgently embark on implementing a major scheme based on the Generation Master Plan underway.  
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&nbsp;Mozambique has undertaken significant efforts in recent years in electrifying the country. The electrification rate has increased from 5% in 2001 to 26% in 2016. However, access to electricity remains low and is mainly focused on urban areas. The vast majority (70%) of Mozambique’s population lives in rural areas of which only 5.7% use electricity for lighting. Forest resources satisfy more than 85% of total domestic energy requirements, in rural areas even over 95%. Although also used for lighting, biomass is mainly used for cooking. The great majority of households uses inefficient cooking technologies such as three-stone fire and traditional stoves.<br/>
  
Biomass coming from an estimated 30.6 million hectares of forest lands for wood fuel and charcoal represents about 80% of the total energy consumed by the households. This value is even bigger in remote rural areas. Every year it is estimated that 16,000,000 m3 of forestry resources are burnt to meet rural energy requirements.  
+
The national grid including off grid facilities is claimed to reach some 30&nbsp;% of the country today in terms of numbers of people with potential access to the grid (not connected). Many district capitals depend on expensive and often unreliable power generation with diesel generators. Outside these towns, the situation is even worse. The overwhelming majority of rural households, most rural schools, health centres and administrative posts are without access to electricity. Lack of mechanical power is a bottleneck for the rural subsistance agricultural production, as grain producers have to walk long distances to the nearest milling facility. Rural areas lack electricity for lighting, radio and communication in households and for refrigeration in small commerce. Nevertheless, many rural household spend a considerable share of their income for modern energy in the form of kerosene or batteries (€ 4–5 per month). Lack of access to electricity restricts the local population’s opportunities for income-generating activities.<br/>The energy sector is key to the country's economy already today, since energy exports make up a large share of total foreign exchange earnings. Moreover, the availability of cheap electricity is one of the main reasons for the significant foreign direct investment in energy-intensive industries in Mozambique. Energy exports (hydropower, coal, gas and possibly oil) and projects to cover the growing domestic electricity demand will play an increasingly important role in the years to come. The liberalisation of the power sector initiated in 1997 allowed for third parties from the private sector to enter the power generation, transmission and distribution markets without impressive results so far (2012).<br/>
  
The present consumption of oil products is in the order of 600 million litres per year, transport being the lead user followed by agriculture. The turbulence in international oil markets since 2004 resulting in abrupt fluctuations of oil prices have become a source of social unrest. The reduction of the Mozambican energy bill, especially for imports of liquid fossil fuels, which in 2006 amounted to 14% of national imports, deserves special attention. Today both liquid pe-troleum gas (LPG) and kerosene have only a small impact in terms of the national energy ba-lance. LPG is mainly used in the urban centres of Maputo, Matola, Beira and Nampula. How-ever due to bottlenecks in supplies the national consumption does not exceed 14,000 tons.  
+
<span lang="EN-GB">Mozambique’s Draft National Electrification Strategy has a goal to achieve universal access to electricity by 2030. It is lagging behind to achieve this goal. Thus, off-grid can complete on-grid expansion and help to achieve this goal in a cost-friendly and timely manner, especially since Mozambique has a vast landscape and the last-mile population are sparsely distributed. Thus, off-grid is also climate-friendly as it helps to replace the conventional fossil-fuel generation.</span><span style="mso-ansi-language:DE" lang="DE"></span>
  
Mozambique´s considerable energy resources enable the country to meet its internal demand and still export energy to Southern and East African countries. The availability of energy resources including hydro, natural gas and coal, plus the geographical positioning of the country – acting both as route to the countries inland well served by harbours, railway and pipeline systems, and as an interface between the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Eastern African Community (EAC) gives Mozambique a privileged, strategic position and role in the regional energy sector.
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[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
  
<br>However despite the countries significant electric power potential there should be no rapid shift expected from biomass to electricity use because Mozambique is a vast country with the majority of the population living in rural communities dispersed throughout the provinces. Energy solutions must take into consideration this reality and adapt to it by combining an intensification of electrification in those areas served by the national electricity grid and the adoption of modern technological solutions and energy services in particular for remote areas, using sustainable biomass, solar and hydropower resources.
+
== Potentials ==
  
<br>
+
Mozambique has considerable energy resources with an estimated hydropower potential of 12,000 MW and also gas reserves (estimated at reaching 700 billion cubic metres) and vast coal reserves (estimated to reach 140 million TJ) with the potential of generating approx. 500 MW and 5,000 MW respectively.
  
== Noteworthy trends  ==
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Regarding solar, it has about 23 TW capacity, out of which 2.7 GW could easily be harnessed<ref name="BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf">BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf</ref>.
  
<span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">Despite its </span>large renewable energy resources, the country energy sector focus is on large hydro projects in the Zambezi Basin (i.e. Mphanda Nkuwa) to produce power for export to South Africa and for industry. Mozambique relies heavily on the export of commercial electricity to South Africa from the Cahora Bassa dam on the Zambezi River to generate foreign exchange income.</span>
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[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
  
<span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'times new roman','serif'; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: calibri; mso-ansi-language: en-us; mso-fareast-language: en-us; mso-bidi-language: ar-sa">The two immediate projects are the 850 MW (nominal) expansion of the Cahora Bassa dam and the controversial Mphanda Nkuwa dam (2500 MW).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>See table below.</span>  
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<br/>
  
<span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'times new roman','serif'; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: calibri; mso-ansi-language: en-us; mso-fareast-language: en-us; mso-bidi-language: ar-sa"></span>
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<br/>
  
{| style="width: 959px; height: 411px" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"
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== Renewable Energy Potential<br/> ==
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{| style="width: 100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
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|-
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! scope="col" | Resource
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! scope="col" | Availability
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! scope="col" | Total Potential
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|-
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| Wind
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| Along the cost Niassa (Average wind speed 6 m/s)<br/>
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|
 +
|-
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| Solar
 +
| 4.5-7 kWh/m2/day
 +
| 2.7 GW
 +
|-
 +
| Hydro
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| 12 GW (1 GW in small installations up to 10 MW)
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| 12 000 MW
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
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| Biomass
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| 100's of MW (Big biogas potential)
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|
 +
|}
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[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
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 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
 
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== Demand and Supply<br/> ==
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 +
Peak electricity demand was 530 MW in 2010 (without Mozal) with an energy consumption of approximately 3,032 GWh. The increase in power consumption has been significant during recent years with average annual increases in the order of 6 to 8&nbsp;% over the last 10 years. These figures reflect supply to domestic, commercial and industrial consumers in the national power network supplied by Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM) the national power company. Approx. 136 MW (61 MW from hydro and 75 MW from diesel and gas) are supplied by EdM's own generation, mainly by ageing plants requiring refurbishment. The remaining demand is supplied through a purchase agreement with Cahora Bassa, a hydropower plant at the Zambezi River with an installed capacity of 2,075 MW. The number of consumers has grown with more than 10% annually since the year 2000 and was about 850,000 in 2010 (2,240 Medium & High Voltage clients). At present still only 16% of the population has access to electricity. Power demand forecasts indicate that with an average projected growth rate of 6% p.a. Mozambique will reach a maximum demand of 1,350 MW by 2030 and a projected consumption of 8,300 GWh. From 2009 until 2013, it is foreseen that demand reach 560 MW by 2013. For meeting the country‘s electricity needs in a timely manner, it is imperative given that the Cahora Bassa‘s reserve for domestic market requirements of 400 MW is almost exhausted. Therefore it is important that the HEP sites Mavuzi, Chicamba, Corumana are rehabilitated and that the technical and economical feasb. HEP sites Tsate, Mueneze, Alto Malema, Massingir and Mavuzi II and III are errected and the retrofit of the MTC Maputo Gas Turbine. These investments would sum to approx. 415 MW ICap and approx. 300 MW additional firm power. Several large scale IPPs, mainly for export purposes, are planned (totalling ca. 3 to 5 GW).
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
Biomass coming from an estimated 30.6 million hectares of forest lands for wood fuel and charcoal represents about 80% of the total energy consumed by the households. This value is even bigger in remote rural areas. Every year it is estimated that 16,000,000 m3 of forestry resources are burnt to meet rural energy requirements.
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
The present consumption of oil products is in the order of 600 million litres per year, transport being the lead user followed by agriculture. The turbulence in international oil markets since 2004 resulting in abrupt fluctuations of oil prices have become a source of social unrest. The reduction of the Mozambican energy bill, especially for imports of liquid fossil fuels, which in 2006 amounted to 14% of national imports, deserves special attention. Today both liquid pe-troleum gas (LPG) and kerosene have only a small impact in terms of the national energy ba-lance. LPG is mainly used in the urban centres of Maputo, Matola, Beira and Nampula. How-ever due to bottlenecks in supplies the national consumption does not exceed 14,000 tons.
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
Mozambique´s considerable energy resources enable the country to meet its internal demand and still export energy to Southern and East African countries. The availability of energy resources including hydro, natural gas and coal, plus the geographical positioning of the country – acting both as route to the countries inland well served by harbours, railway and pipeline systems, and as an interface between the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Eastern African Community (EAC) gives Mozambique a privileged, strategic position and role in the regional energy sector.
 +
 
 +
<br/>However despite the countries significant electric power potential there should be no rapid shift expected from biomass to electricity use because Mozambique is a vast country with the majority of the population living in rural communities dispersed throughout the provinces. Energy solutions must take into consideration this reality and adapt to it by combining an intensification of electrification in those areas served by the national electricity grid and the adoption of modern technological solutions and energy services in particular for remote areas, using sustainable biomass, solar and hydropower resources.
 +
 
 +
[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
== Noteworthy Trends<br/> ==
 +
 
 +
<span lang="en-us"><span>Despite its </span>large renewable energy resources, the country energy sector focus is on large hydro projects in the Zambezi Basin (i.e. Mphanda Nkuwa) to produce power for export to South Africa and for industry. Mozambique relies heavily on the export of commercial electricity to South Africa from the Cahora Bassa dam on the Zambezi River to generate foreign exchange income.</span>
 +
 
 +
The two immediate projects are the 850 MW (nominal) expansion of the Cahora Bassa dam and the controversial Mphanda Nkuwa dam (2500 MW). See table below.
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 +
<br/>
 +
 
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{| style="width: 100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"
 +
|-
 +
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
'''Project Name Type of Project'''
 
'''Project Name Type of Project'''
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
'''&nbsp;Size'''
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'''Size'''
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
'''&nbsp;Comments'''
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'''Comments'''
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
CB North Bank Hydropower expansion
 
CB North Bank Hydropower expansion
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
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| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
850 to 1200 additional MW
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850 to 1300 additional MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Detailed feasibility study is underway
 
Detailed feasibility study is underway
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Mphanda Nkuwa Hydropower
 
Mphanda Nkuwa Hydropower
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
2500 MW
 
2500 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
&nbsp;
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Env. + Soc. Impact Study underway
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Massingir Hydropower
 
Massingir Hydropower
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
40 MW
 
40 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
EDM managed
 
EDM managed
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Lurio Hydropower
 
Lurio Hydropower
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
120 MW
 
120 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
&nbsp;
+
<br/>
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Majawa Hydropower
 
Majawa Hydropower
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
25 MW
 
25 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
&nbsp;
+
<br/>
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Malema Hydropower
 
Malema Hydropower
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
60 MW
 
60 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
&nbsp;
+
<br/>
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Moatize Coal fired power plant
 
Moatize Coal fired power plant
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
1500 MW
 
1500 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
IES is the developer
 
IES is the developer
  
 
|-
 
|-
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
Temane Combined Cycle natural gas fired power plant
 
Temane Combined Cycle natural gas fired power plant
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
300-400 MW
 
300-400 MW
  
| valign="top" width="213" |  
+
| style="width: 213px; vertical-align: top" |  
 
On the SASOL gaspipeline. 2010
 
On the SASOL gaspipeline. 2010
  
 
|}
 
|}
  
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<br/>
 +
 +
As a result of March 2009 Government policy, the biofuels sector is receiving hundreds of millions of dollars in investment (sugar – ethanol, jatropha --- biodiesel).However, production has yet to commence and there is considerable controversy about transparency and food vs. energy.
 +
 +
[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
  
 +
<br/>
  
&nbsp;
+
<br/>
  
<span lang="EN-US">As a result of March 2009 Government policy, the biofuels sector is receiving hundreds of millions of dollars in investment (sugar – ethanol, jatropha --- biodiesel).<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>However, production has yet to commence and there is considerable controversy about transparency and food vs. energy.</span>  
+
== Market Situation<br/> ==
  
== Market situation ==
+
The market situation for '''photovoltaic (PV)''' and hydro power technologies and services is still in early stages.The off-grid market is identified to be around 4 million households, creating an opportunity for not only electrification but also boosting the local economy. UNEP has estimated that for every 10,000 off-grid houses connection, 30 jobs are created by renewable energy. The jobs could be created in the local manufacturing, distribution and maintenance. Apart from electrification, off-grid can also support other productive uses of electricity especially in the agriculture sector (solar pumping)<ref name="Global Green Growth Institute (2017). Country Brief: Mozambique. Off-grid solar power in Mozambique: Opportunities for universal energy access and barriers to private sector participation. https://sun-connect-news.org/fileadmin/DATEIEN/Dateien/New/Country-Brief-Mozambique.pdf">Global Green Growth Institute (2017). Country Brief: Mozambique. Off-grid solar power in Mozambique: Opportunities for universal energy access and barriers to private sector participation.fckLRfckLRhttps://sun-connect-news.org/fileadmin/DATEIEN/Dateien/New/Country-Brief-Mozambique.pdf</ref>.<br/>
  
The market situation for photo-voltaic (PV) and hydro power technologies and services is still in a very incipient stage. In the case of micro and pico hydro there are no readily available products available in the country which makes prices prohibitive for communities and individual households. However there is a good potential for local manufacture of water wheels and pico turbines, although the market is still very limited and therefore local services tend to be rather expensive.  
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The private sector is underdeveloped in Mozambique and until 2018, only 25 business were either active or were inclined to enter the market in near future. These businesses are mostly dependent on public tender and donor initiatives. However, the informal off-grid solar products market is thriving in Mozambique with products imported from South Africa, Tanzania or China. This could be because Mozambique has a higher import duty and VAT on PV and ICS as compared to other sub-Saharan countries such as Ethiopia, Ghana or Tanzania. These products in the informal market enter via informal channels and do not pay the import taxes<ref name="Lighting Global (2018):Off-Grid Solar Market Assessment in Mozambique https://www.lightingafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Mozambique_off-grid-assessment.pdf">Lighting Global (2018):Off-Grid Solar Market Assessment in MozambiquefckLRfckLR https://www.lightingafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Mozambique_off-grid-assessment.pdf</ref>.<br/>
  
In its first phase, ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE has started pioneer activities in the local manufacture of water wheels for upgrading traditional maize mills and the manufacture of pico turbines with most promising results. Therefore it is envisaged to upscale micro/pico hydro power activities sustainably on a local level with an appropriate and cost effective approach for technical capacity building, technology transfer and market development. The market for PV is divided into steadily growing local market spots and mainly capital based PV providers working with directly imported equipment for government projects funded by donors. The local market is efficient and reliable but informal, with low quality products of Chinese origin coming mainly from RSA. Market actors are lacking technical knowledge. In parallel to the dissemination of products from the local market ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE has started designing an energy efficient compact small solar home system (SSHS) with a local enterprise. In the case of PV for household lighting, technical capacity building, technology transfer and market development is envisaged within a Public Private Partnership (PPP) measure with German enterprises and higher quality products. In addition to the overarching need for developing the countries extensive energy resources (hydro, coal, gas and biomass) for both domestic and regional consumption the main challenges in the power sector in Mozambique are:
+
The Improved Cookstove (ICS) market in Mozambique is small and is categorized by mostly donor/NGOs initiatives. In 2016, it was estimated that 70,000 ICS were distributed via NGOs interventions, including both locally made, hybrid as well as imported ICS<ref name="BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf">BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf</ref>.
  
*Ensuring that affordable electricity supply is available to meet the rapidly growing domestic demand. In the near term, this will involve the continued extension of the grid with a focus on loss reduction and intensification of the grid,  
+
For green mini grid, the tendering process is similar as big energy projects and this increases the complexity for obtaining a concession contact, especially for local businesses. However, the government is promoting mini-grids for public spaces such as health centres, schools and water pumping for community and agricultural purposes<ref name="BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf">BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf</ref>.
*Reaching the vast areas of the country beyond the national grid managed by EdM. The GoM is committed to supporting decentralized electrification of social infrastructure (rural schools, clinics and administrative offices) and to increase access to modern energy services to villages and rural enterprises through PV systems, micro/pico-hydro schemes, modern biomass energy, and other Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs),
 
*Ensuring that power shortages do not become a constraint on economic growth. Several GoM proposed generation and transmission ―mega-projects‖ will address sufficiency and security of supply for the medium to long-term,
 
*Institutional strengthening and capacity development of the main sector public institutions (MoE, EdM, FUNAE and CNELEC) but also of the private sector composed of NGOs, MFIs, and local enterprises working with RETs, in order to improve their respective performance, governance and effectiveness.
 
  
Cumulative capacity, by technology
+
In the case of micro and pico hydro there are no readily available products available in the country which makes prices prohibitive for communities and individual households. However there is a good potential for local manufacture of water wheels and pico turbines, although the market is still very limited and therefore local services tend to be rather expensive.<br/>
  
&nbsp;
+
In its first phase, ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE started pioneer activities in the local manufacture of water wheels for upgrading traditional maize mills and the manufacture of pico turbines with most promising results. Therefore it is envisaged to upscale micro/pico hydro power activities sustainably on a local level with an appropriate and cost effective approach for technical capacity building, technology transfer and market development.
  
#<span lang="EN-US">Wind:&nbsp; NONE</span>
+
The market for PV is divided into steadily growing local market spots and mainly capital based PV providers working with directly imported equipment for government projects funded by donors. The local market is efficient and reliable but informal, with low quality products of Chinese origin coming mainly from RSA. Market actors are lacking technical knowledge. In parallel to the dissemination of products from the local market ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE has started designing an energy efficient compact '''small solar home system (SSHS)''' with a local enterprise. In the case of PV for household lighting, technical capacity building, technology transfer and market development is envisaged within a Public Private Partnership (PPP) measure with German enterprises and higher quality products.<br/>
#<span lang="EN-US">Solar PV: NO GRID CONNECT. SMALL OFF GRID MARKET.</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">CSP: NONE</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">Solar thermal:<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Very small household and tourism market</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">Geothermal: NONE.</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">Bioenergy (heat and/or power):<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>5-10 MW in 5 sugar refineries (Self consumed)</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">Hydropower: 2,075 MW Cahora Bassa dam dominates the energy sector.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This is owned by Hidroelectrica de Cahora Bassa (HCB), whose assets are 85% owned by the Mozambique government.<br>160 MW, mostly of hydropower, is managed by Electricidade de Mozambique (EDM)</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">Biofuels production data – for both ethanol and biodiesel.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span><br>A [[Www.biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/2009/03/27/mozambique-establishes-national-biofuels-policy|National Policy and Strategy for Biofuels]] was approved in February 2009 which focuses on ethanol from sugarcane and sorghum and coconut and jatropha for biodeisel. &lt; www.biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/2009/03/27/mozambique-establishes-national-biofuels-policy&gt; .<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span><br>This policy has led to hundreds of millions of dollars in investment plans in ethanol and biodiesel in Mozambique. An October 2007 ethanol plant in Mozambique received US$510 million in support from the UK. However, the actual on-the-ground activity is unclear and production has yet to commence.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Biofuels are not readily available in the country and export details are also not available. [[#_ftn1|<span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'times new roman','serif'; mso-bidi-font-size: 10.0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: calibri; mso-ansi-language: en-us; mso-fareast-language: en-us; mso-bidi-language: ar-sa">[1]</span></span></span></span>]]<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>&lt; http://ictsd.org/i/news/biores/45169/&gt;</span>
 
#<span lang="EN-US">Marine energy (specify technology) NONE</span>
 
<div style="mso-element: footnote-list"><br>
 
----
 
<div id="ftn1" style="mso-element: footnote">
 
[[#_ftnref1|<span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoFootnoteReference"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'times new roman','serif'; mso-fareast-font-family: calibri; mso-ansi-language: en-us; mso-fareast-language: en-us; mso-bidi-language: ar-sa">[1]</span></span></span></span></span>]]<span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9pt; line-height: 115%; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">The biofuels sector, and especially the biodiesel sector, has attracted considerable investment.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Hundreds of millions of dollars of investment has been made.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Much of this has been in the sugar sector which is growing rapidly.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>At least 7<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>biodiesel/jatropha plantations have been set up with poor -- and controversial – results.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>(see Justica Ambiental!/Uniao Nacional de Camponeses, Jatropha: A Socio-economic pitfall for Mozambique.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>August 2009.</span>
 
</div></div>
 
== 1.2. Policy framework, laws and regulations  ==
 
  
Within PARPA (PRSP), the programme for reduction and alleviation of absolute poverty, the GoM has been granting high priority to efforts to increase access to electricity for the population. Within the PARPA II the GoM has affirmed the critical role of the energy sector in reducing poverty. Adequate and equitable access to energy resources and services such as the provision of energy services to households, rural schools, administrative offices, and hospitals in rural areas is defined as a key driver of growth and poverty alleviation. The energy-related goals set in the PARPA are being operationalised by GoM through a number of strategies, investments and studies that have been prepared or are under way. The PARPA II (§507ff) outlines a programme for the energy sector, which entails: Electrification, Liquid Fuels, Renewable Energy, and Intersectoral Collaboration. The Energy Policy approved March 3rd 1998 by the Council of Ministers under Resolution 5/98 established with the following objectives among others relevant for ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE.:
+
<br/>
  
*Guarantee reliable supply of energy, at lowest possible cost, in order to meet present demand and future levels based on economic development trajectories,  
+
<u>In addition to the overarching need for developing the countries extensive energy resources (hydro, coal, gas and biomass) for both domestic and regional consumption the main challenges in the power sector in Mozambique are:</u><br/>
*Increase the energy options available for household consumption,  
+
 
*Secure better efficiency in energy utilization,  
+
*Ensuring that affordable electricity supply is available to meet the rapidly growing domestic demand. In the near term, this will involve the continued extension of the grid with a focus on loss reduction and intensification of the grid,
*Promote the development of environmentally friendly conversion technologies, namely hydro, solar, wind and biomass,  
+
*Reaching the vast areas of the country beyond the national grid managed by EdM. The GoM is committed to supporting decentralized electrification of social infrastructure (rural schools, clinics and administrative offices) and to increase access to modern energy services to villages and rural enterprises through PV systems, micro/pico-hydro schemes, modern biomass energy, and other Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs),
 +
*Ensuring that power shortages do not become a constraint on economic growth. Several GoM proposed generation and transmission ―mega-projects‖ will address sufficiency and security of supply for the medium to long-term,
 +
*Institutional strengthening and capacity development of the main sector public institutions (MoE, EdM, FUNAE and CNELEC) but also of the private sector composed of NGOs, MFIs, and local enterprises working with RETs, in order to improve their respective performance, governance and effectiveness.<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
<u>Cumulative capacity, by technology:</u><br/>
 +
 
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Wind: NONE</span><br/>
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Solar PV: NO GRID CONNECT. SMALL OFF GRID MARKET.</span>
 +
#<span lang="en-us">CSP: NONE</span>
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Solar thermal:<span></span>Very small household and tourism market</span>
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Geothermal: NONE.</span>
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Bioenergy (heat and/or power):<span></span> 5-10 MW in 5 sugar refineries (Self consumed)</span>
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Hydropower: 2,075 MW Cahora Bassa dam dominates the energy sector.<span></span>This is owned by Hidroelectrica de Cahora Bassa (HCB), whose assets are 85% owned by the Mozambique government.<br/>160 MW, mostly of hydropower, is managed by Electricidade de Mozambique (EDM)</span>
 +
 
 +
Biofuels production data – for both ethanol and biodiesel.<span></span><br/>A National Policy and Strategy for Biofuels was approved in February 2009 which focuses on ethanol from sugarcane and sorghum and coconut and jatropha for biodiesel. This policy has led to hundreds of millions of dollars in investment plans in ethanol and biodiesel in Mozambique. In October 2007 ethanol plant in Mozambique received US$510 million in support from the UK. However, the actual on-the-ground activity is unclear and production has yet to commence.<span></span> Biofuels are not readily available in the country and export details are also not available<ref name="The biofuels sector, and especially the biodiesel sector, has attracted considerable investment. Hundreds of millions of dollars of investment has been made. Much of this has been in the sugar sector which is growing rapidly. At least 7 biodiesel/jatropha plantations have been set up with poor -- and controversial – results. (see Justica Ambiental!/Uniao Nacional de Camponeses, Jatropha: A Socio-economic pitfall for Mozambique. August 2009. http://ictsd.org/i/news/biores/45169/">The biofuels sector, and especially the biodiesel sector, has attracted considerable investment. Hundreds of millions of dollars of investment has been made. Much of this has been in the sugar sector which is growing rapidly. At least 7 biodiesel/jatropha plantations have been set up with poor -- and controversial – results. (see Justica Ambiental!/Uniao Nacional de Camponeses, Jatropha: A Socio-economic pitfall for Mozambique. August 2009. http://ictsd.org/i/news/biores/45169/</ref>.<br/>
 +
 
 +
#<span lang="en-us">Marine energy (specify technology) NONE</span>
 +
<div><br/></div>
 +
[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
= Key Problems of the Energy Sector =
 +
 
 +
Power Africa states that Mozambique's energy sector's most challenging issues are as follows<ref name="Power Africa. (2018). Mozambique Factsheet. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Mozambique_-_November_2018_Country_Fact_Sheet.pdf">Power Africa. (2018). Mozambique Factsheet. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Mozambique_-_November_2018_Country_Fact_Sheet.pdf</ref>:
 +
 
 +
*Public Finances/Macro-economic issues<br/>
 +
*Lacking credible&nbsp;utility and cost-reflective tariff<br/>
 +
*Lack of strong, transparent regulator<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
= Policy Framework, Laws and Regulations<br/> =
 +
 
 +
The legal framework relating to energy in Mozambique is composed of a variety of policies, strategies and regulations, the most important ones being the energy strategy (2009), the policy for the development of new and renewable energies 2011-2025 (2011), the strategy of the conversation and sustainable use of biomass energy (2013), the strategy of biofuels (2009), the regulation of biofuels and their mixture and the regulation that established the feed in tariff for new and renewable energies - REFIT (2014).<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
Within PARPA (PRSP), the programme for reduction and alleviation of absolute poverty, the GoM has been granting high priority to efforts to increase access to electricity for the population. Within the PARPA II the GoM has affirmed the critical role of the energy sector in reducing poverty. Adequate and equitable access to energy resources and services such as the provision of energy services to households, rural schools, administrative offices, and hospitals in rural areas is defined as a key driver of growth and poverty alleviation. The energy-related goals set in the PARPA are being operationalised by GoM through a number of strategies, investments and studies that have been prepared or are under way. The PARPA II (§507ff) outlines a programme for the energy sector, which entails: Electrification, Liquid Fuels, Renewable Energy, and Intersectoral Collaboration.<br/>
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
<u>The Energy Policy approved March 3rd 1998 by the Council of Ministers under Resolution 5/98 established with the following objectives among others relevant for ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE.:</u>
 +
 
 +
*Guarantee reliable supply of energy, at lowest possible cost, in order to meet present demand and future levels based on economic development trajectories,
 +
*Increase the energy options available for household consumption,
 +
*Secure better efficiency in energy utilization,
 +
*Promote the development of environmentally friendly conversion technologies, namely hydro, solar, wind and biomass,
 
*Promote competitive, dynamic and more efficient entrepreneurs.
 
*Promote competitive, dynamic and more efficient entrepreneurs.
  
In March 2009 the Policy for Renewables was defined with the following objectives among others with relevance for ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE:
+
<br/>
  
*Increase the access to modern energy services of high quality and accessible prices,  
+
<u>In March 2009 the Policy for Renewables was defined with the following objectives among others with relevance for ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE:</u>
*Reduce poverty and contribute to the Millennium Development Goals,  
+
 
 +
*Increase the access to modern energy services of high quality and accessible prices,
 +
*Reduce poverty and contribute to the Millennium Development Goals,
 
*Contribute to the generation of local and national income and employment.
 
*Contribute to the generation of local and national income and employment.
  
The revised Energy Strategy aims to align Mozambique with best international practices for efficient energy utilization, raising awareness amongst its citizens about good environmental practices, diversifying the energy supply matrix, giving particular emphasis to new and renewable sources of energy and to the opportunities contained within the Clean Development Mechanisms, under the Kyoto Protocol. It should ensure energy availability to sustainably meet the requirements of national socio-economic development by undertaking the necessary actions to increase access to diversified energy sources in a sustainable way, contributing to the welfare of the population and the country‘s socio-economic development. The strategy recognizes accelerating electrification efforts, giving priority to rural areas, through the expansion and intensification of the national grid, the utilization of Renewables, the optimization of low cost solutions, and the introduction of measures which will ensure productive and efficient use of electricity (as low consumption/high efficiency light bulbs). The GoM aims to support regional integration and reflects in its national legal framework the best practices in environmental protection. Mozambique has its own Oil Law and Electricity Law. A Regulation defines the licensing of electricity installations, another Regulation establishes the competencies and procedures regarding concessioning of production, transmission, distribution and marketing of electricity, as well as its importation and exportation. Other regulations establish the norms for the national grid, the instructions for CNELEC and its regulatory functions, and the Technical Unit for Implementation of Hydroelectric Projects (UTIP). Based on the new Energy Sector Strategy with its specific subsectors of Electrical Energy and New and Renewable Energies, as well as the Energy Strategic Plan 2009 – 2013, the GoM has prepared a comprehensive 5-year plan for energy development and access. ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE is fully aligned and consistent with this plan, with PARPA and with the new sector strategy. ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE will specifically support: (i) grid densification by scaling-up electricity connections in peri-urban areas; (ii) promote market development for renewable energy technologies for household lighting and social infrastructure; and (iii) technology transfer and capacity building for the main implementing partners mainly, but not exclusively of the private sector.
+
<br/>
  
== 1.3. Institutional set up in the energy sector, Activities of other donors  ==
+
The revised Energy Strategy aims to align Mozambique with best international practices for efficient energy utilization, raising awareness amongst its citizens about good environmental practices, diversifying the energy supply matrix, giving particular emphasis to new and renewable sources of energy and to the opportunities contained within the Clean Development Mechanisms, under the Kyoto Protocol. It should ensure energy availability to sustainably meet the requirements of national socio-economic development by undertaking the necessary actions to increase access to diversified energy sources in a sustainable way, contributing to the welfare of the population and the country‘s socio-economic development. The strategy recognizes accelerating electrification efforts, giving priority to rural areas, through the expansion and intensification of the national grid, the utilization of Renewables, the optimization of low cost solutions, and the introduction of measures which will ensure productive and efficient use of electricity (as low consumption/high efficiency light bulbs). The GoM aims to support regional integration and reflects in its national legal framework the best practices in environmental protection. Mozambique has its own Oil Law and Electricity Law. A Regulation defines the licensing of electricity installations, another Regulation establishes the competencies and procedures regarding concessioning of production, transmission, distribution and marketing of electricity, as well as its importation and exportation. Other regulations establish the norms for the national grid, the instructions for CNELEC and its regulatory functions, and the Technical Unit for Implementation of Hydroelectric Projects (UTIP). Based on the new Energy Sector Strategy with its specific subsectors of Electrical Energy and New and Renewable Energies, as well as the Energy Strategic Plan 2009 – 2013, the GoM has prepared a comprehensive 5-year plan for energy development and access. In the current government’s 5-year plan (2015-2019) increased access to electricity appears as one of the strategic objectives. Mozambique’s target is to provide electricity access to 50% of the population by 2023. Rural electrification is planned to be increased using both the national grid and household solar systems. A special focus lies on the electrification of health centres through PV solutions. Also the construction of 12 mini hydropower plants is foreseen.&nbsp;The 5-year plan does not make any mention of biomass related energy issues.<br/>
  
The public sector is represented by:
+
<br/>
  
*The Ministry of Energy (MoE) is responsible for national energy planning and policy formulation and for overseeing the operation and development of the energy sector. The MoE is composed of three main thematic areas (Power Sector, Renewables and Liquid Fuels) and a central services management group. The MoE is represented in the provinces through the Provincial Directorates of Mineral Resources and Energy (DIPREME).  
+
ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE is fully aligned and consistent with this plan, with PARPA and with the new sector strategy. ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE will specifically support: (i) grid densification by scaling-up electricity connections in peri-urban areas; (ii) promote market development for renewable energy technologies for household lighting and social infrastructure; and (iii) technology transfer and capacity building for the main implementing partners mainly, but not exclusively of the private sector.<br/>
*Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM), is a vertically-integrated, government-owned electric utility responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the national grid. EdM buys most of its power supply (apr. 400 MW) from Hidroelectrica de Cahora Bassa (HCB), owner and operator of the Cahora Bassa hydro power plant on the Zambezi (2,075 MW). The GoM owns 82 percent of HCB which operates as an Independent Power Producer (IPP) The bulk of the electricity generated at HCB is exported to South Africa, with a small amount to Zimbabwe. EdM sells any excess electricity on the Southern Africa Short Term Energy Market. The Mozambique transmission grid is currently interconnected with South Africa, Zimbabwe and Swaziland.  
+
 
*The Fundo Nacional de Energia (FUNAE) was established in 1997 as a public institution to promote rural electrification and rural access to modern energy services, in a sustainable manner, and as a contributor to economic and social development in the country. Since its establishment FUNAE has implemented numerous projects using renewable energy technologies to electrify schools, clinics and communities.  
+
[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
 +
 
 +
<br/>
 +
 
 +
= Institutional Set-up in the Energy Sector<br/> =
 +
 
 +
<u>The public sector is represented by:</u>
 +
 
 +
*The [http://www.mireme.gov.mz/ Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy (MIREME) FUNAE] was created in 2015 after elections by merging the former Ministry of Energy with the Ministry of Mineral Resources. The Ministry consists of four directorates: Mines and Geology, Hydrocarbons and Fuels, Energy and Planning and Cooperation. In the energy sector MIREME is responsible for national energy planning and policy formulation and for overseeing the operation and development of the energy sector. MIREME is represented in the provinces through the Provincial Directorates of Mineral Resources and Energy (DIPREME).<br/>
 +
*Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM), is a vertically-integrated, government-owned electric utility responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the national grid. EdM buys most of its power supply (apr. 400 MW) from Hidroelectrica de Cahora Bassa (HCB), owner and operator of the Cahora Bassa hydro power plant on the Zambezi (2,075 MW). The GoM owns 82 percent of HCB which operates as an Independent Power Producer (IPP) The bulk of the electricity generated at HCB is exported to South Africa, with a small amount to Zimbabwe. EdM sells any excess electricity on the Southern Africa Short Term Energy Market. The Mozambique transmission grid is currently interconnected with South Africa, Zimbabwe and Swaziland.
 +
*The [http://www.funae.co.mz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=27&lang=en Fundo Nacional de Energia] (FUNAE) was established in 1997 as a public institution to promote rural electrification and rural access to modern energy services, in a sustainable manner, and as a contributor to economic and social development in the country. Since its establishment FUNAE has implemented numerous projects using renewable energy technologies to electrify schools, clinics and communities.<br/>
 
*The Conselho Nacional de Electricidade (CNELEC) was re-established as an independent advisory regulatory body for the electricity sector in early 2008 with support from the World Bank Energy Reform and Access Project (ERAP). CNELEC was instructed to give its highest priority to an evaluation of EDM‘s performance under its Performance Contract with the GoM. This Performance Contract covers the years 2007 to 2009 and sets out the goals and indicators to be met annually by EDM and GoM. CNELEC was also instructed to conduct a review of the current methodology used by EDM in setting tariffs. In performing the review of EDM‘s performance, the directive instructed CNELEC to conduct its review in an open and transparent manner with public hearings in several locations throughout the country.
 
*The Conselho Nacional de Electricidade (CNELEC) was re-established as an independent advisory regulatory body for the electricity sector in early 2008 with support from the World Bank Energy Reform and Access Project (ERAP). CNELEC was instructed to give its highest priority to an evaluation of EDM‘s performance under its Performance Contract with the GoM. This Performance Contract covers the years 2007 to 2009 and sets out the goals and indicators to be met annually by EDM and GoM. CNELEC was also instructed to conduct a review of the current methodology used by EDM in setting tariffs. In performing the review of EDM‘s performance, the directive instructed CNELEC to conduct its review in an open and transparent manner with public hearings in several locations throughout the country.
 +
*The private sector is represented by various licensed private enterprises which participate in the grid extension and household connection works of EdM and private enterprises for the provision and installation of PV products, often situated exclusively in the capital Maputo. A microfinance sector with banks and NGOs is active throughout the country but often exclusively restricted to the province and/or district capitals. The NGO sector is characterized by relatively weak institutional profiles and technical specialisation, as well as weak implementation structures and technical competences.
 +
 +
[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
 +
 +
<br/>
 +
 +
<br/>
 +
 +
= Major Donor Activities =
 +
 +
Currently, different international actors such as the SNV, GIZ, World Bank, JICA, USAID are active in the energy supporting different policies as well as RE projects<ref>Affrica-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Program: Solar Energy Investment Opportunities in MozambiquefckLRfckLR</ref>.&nbsp;
 +
 +
The World Bank is one of the main donors in the energy sector. Since July 2007, it has served as co-chair with the GoM on the ―Energy Sector Working Group‖ that was established within the framework of the Paris Declaration. The Bank is in preparation of the second phase of the '''Energy Reform and Access Project (ERAP)''', which will now be called '''Energy Development and Access Programme (EDAP).''' The proposed project will help establish the necessary operational framework for increasing electricity access to un-electrified areas nationally in a sustainable and programmatic manner, aiming at mainstreaming a sector-wide approach (SWAp) by establishing a comprehensive donor partnership framework for coordinated and sustained financing of investment and capacity strengthening aligned with national priorities and procedures (WB, ADB, ADF, OFID, BADEA, IsDB, Kuweit Fund) With Norway, the World Bank is also co-financing the Mozambique- Malawi Transmission Interconnection Project (cancelled medio 2010) and the Mozambique Regional Transmission Backbone Project. Sweden is engaged together with co-financing of Norway and Denmark in rural electrification (grid extension and household connections) in Sofala, Manica, Tete and Niassa Provinces. Norway is financing rural electrification in Cabo Delgado and grid extension in Gurue - Cuamba – Lichinga and Namacurra – Pebane. '''Technical assistance (TA)''' and capacity development for EdM in mega project development for power generation, as well as for the MoE are delivered by Norway and Sweden. Sweden also is embarking on the rehabilitation of the hydro power stations in Mavuzi and Chicamba. The '''European Commission (EC)''' is financing rural electrification in Cabo Delgado, Tete and Sofala with EdM, PV electrification in rural areas with FUNAE and capacity building in energy planning and management for the MoE. DFID is giving TA on Biofuels to the National Directorate of Renewable Energy of the MoE.<br/>
 +
 +
In April 2019,&nbsp;World Bank approved a USD 82 million energy grant to Mozambique to increase access to electricity in the peri-urban and rural areas, expand the existing grid network and promote the use of off-grid energy solutions in areas where grid expansion is not feasible.This project is also supported by a USD 55 million Multi-Donor Trust Fund, also admisitered by the World bank. The project will focus on the northern provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Cabo Delgado, and Zambezia and Sofala in the centre of the country. It also aims to contribute towards the Mozambique government’s Energy for All project.
 +
 +
<br/>
 +
 +
Belgium had an energy program with the Ministry of Energy trough FUNAE, from September 2010 up to December 2016. The program focused on off-grid energy systems, based on renewable energy resources (hydraulic, solar and wind), in remote rural areas where no grid connection is foreseen within the next five years. The program was financed, on grant basis, electrification systems for community infrastructures such as administrative buildings, schools, health centres, water pumping devices and public lighting. In 2017 a new program has to start, worth a grant of 12 million euro, with the same partner FUNAE, including renewable energy installations for private use (household, shops or small enterprises) to be stimulated by subsidies (investment funds) and soft loans through micro-finance systems. In order to increase the sustainability of the renewable energy installations, the program will also provide a computerized asset management system and technical assistance focused on capacity building through training initiatives, research and development.&nbsp;<br/>
 +
 +
Considering the large area of the country and the dispersed population in the rural areas, a geographical concentration and/or clustering of the activities will be essential for the follow-up and the cost-effectiveness of the activities. As the provinces of Manica, Tete, Zambezia and Nyassa have a high potential for small hydropower, the possibility of concentrating activities in these four provinces will be investigated.<br/><br/>ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE coordinates its activities with the EDAP and Belgian Programs in close cooperation with FUNAE and government structures both central and in the province, as there will be several common intervention areas such as grid densification, PV electrification of social infrastructure and market development of PV systems for households. The ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE activities are in line with the capacity development needs of the implementing partners of the private sector, NGOs, communities and local entrepreneurs, which will receive business development services and will be trained on the job during the implementation of the activities in the PV and hydro power components.
 +
 +
<br/>
 +
 +
[https://brilhomoz.com/ SNV's BRILHO program] is a five year programme running from 2019-2024 and aims to support the Mozambique's off grid energy makert and support technologies such as Improved Cooking Solutions, Solar Home Systems and Green Mini-grids. It expects to support 8 GMGs with total funding of GBP 2.2 million<ref>5 years on from the launch of Green Mini-Grids Africa – what’s been achieved, and what have we learned? May 2020 https://minigrids.org/5-years-on-from-the-launch-of-green-mini-grids-africa-whats-been-achieved-and-what-have-we-learned/</ref>.<br/><br/>
 +
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[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
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<br/>
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 +
<br/>
 +
 +
= Further Information =
 +
 +
*[[EN-Access to Modern Energy Services Mozambique -Peter Adelmann|EN-Access to Modern Energy Services Mozambique -Peter Adelmann]]
 +
*[[EN-Africa Energy Unit(AFTEG)-World Bank|EN-Africa Energy Unit(AFTEG)-World Bank]]
 +
*USAID Power Africa: [https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Mozambique_-_November_2018_Country_Fact_Sheet.pdf Mozambique Factsheet]
 +
 +
<br/>
 +
 +
= References =
  
The private sector is represented by various licensed private enterprises which participate in the grid extension and household connection works of EdM and private enterprises for the provision and installation of PV products, often situated exclusively in the capital Maputo. A microfinance sector with banks and NGOs is active throughout the country but often exclusively restricted to the province and/or district capitals. The NGO sector is characterized by relatively weak institutional profiles and technical specialisation, as well as weak implementation structures and technical competences. The World Bank is one of the main donors in the energy sector in Mozambique. Since July 2007, it has served as co-chair with the GoM on the ―Energy Sector Working Group‖ that was established within the framework of the Paris Declaration. The Bank is in preparation of the second phase of the Energy Reform and Access Project (ERAP), which will now be called Energy Development and Access Programme (EDAP) The proposed project will help establish the necessary operational framework for increasing electricity access to un-electrified areas nationally in a sustainable and programmatic manner, aiming at mainstreaming a sector-wide approach (SWAp) by establishing a comprehensive donor partnership framework for coordinated and sustained financing of investment and capacity strengthening aligned with national priorities and procedures (WB, ADB, ADF, OFID, BADEA, IsDB, Kuweit Fund) With Norway, the World Bank is also co-financing the Mozambique- Malawi Transmission Interconnection Project and the Mozambique Regional Transmission Backbone Project. Sweden is engaged together with co-financing of Norway and Denmark in rural electrification (grid extension and household connections) in Sofala, Manica, Tete and Niassa Provinces. Norway is financing rural electrification in Cabo Delgado and grid extension in Gurue - Cuamba – Lichinga and Namacurra – Pebane. Technical assistance (TA) and capacity development for EdM in mega project development for power generation, as well as for the MoE are delivered by Norway and Sweden. Sweden also is embarking on the rehabilitation of the hydro power stations in Mavuzi and Chicamba. The European Commission (EC) is financing rural electrification in Cabo Delgado, Tete and Sofala with EdM, PV electrification in rural areas with FUNAE and capacity building in energy planning and management for the MoE. DFID is giving TA on Biofuels to the National Directorate of Renewable Energy of the MoE. ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE will mainly coordinate its activities with the new EDAP Programme as there will be several common intervention areas as grid densification, PV electrification of social infrastructure and market development of PV systems for households. The ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE activities are in line with the capacity development needs of the implementing partners of the private sector, mainly NGOs, communities and local entrepreneurs, which will receive business development services and will be trained on the job during the implementation of the activities in the PV and hydro power components.
+
<references />
  
[[Category:Mosambique]]
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[[Mozambique Energy Situation#toc|►Go to Top]]
[[Category:Country Situation]]
 

Latest revision as of 06:38, 20 July 2021

Mozambique
Flag of Mozambique.png
Location _______.png

Capital:

Maputo

Region:

Coordinates:

25.9500° S, 32.5833° E

Total Area (km²): It includes a country's total area, including areas under inland bodies of water and some coastal waterways.

799,380

Population: It is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin.

31,255,435 (2020)

Rural Population (% of total population): It refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population.

63 (2020)

GDP (current US$): It is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

14,021,421,106 (2020)

GDP Per Capita (current US$): It is gross domestic product divided by midyear population

448.61 (2020)

Access to Electricity (% of population): It is the percentage of population with access to electricity.

29.62 (2019)

Energy Imports Net (% of energy use): It is estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.

-54.60 (2014)

Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption (% of total): It comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products.

12.62 (2014)

Source: World Bank



Additional information on Mozambique on energypedia:



Introduction

Mozambique is one of the poorest countries of the world with a population of 28.8 million people and almost 70% of the population living on less than USD 1.90 per day (2016). The Human Development Index (HDI) 2016 ranks Mozambique 181 out of 188 countries - dropping down from 180 in 2015.  As household budget survey conducted by the Mozambican government in 2016 reveals that the rural-urban gap and income disparity have considerably increased since 2010.

 Mozambique has undertaken significant efforts in recent years in electrifying the country. The electrification rate has increased from 5% in 2001 to 26% in 2016. However, access to electricity remains low and is mainly focused on urban areas. The vast majority (70%) of Mozambique’s population lives in rural areas of which only 5.7% use electricity for lighting. Forest resources satisfy more than 85% of total domestic energy requirements, in rural areas even over 95%. Although also used for lighting, biomass is mainly used for cooking. The great majority of households uses inefficient cooking technologies such as three-stone fire and traditional stoves.

The national grid including off grid facilities is claimed to reach some 30 % of the country today in terms of numbers of people with potential access to the grid (not connected). Many district capitals depend on expensive and often unreliable power generation with diesel generators. Outside these towns, the situation is even worse. The overwhelming majority of rural households, most rural schools, health centres and administrative posts are without access to electricity. Lack of mechanical power is a bottleneck for the rural subsistance agricultural production, as grain producers have to walk long distances to the nearest milling facility. Rural areas lack electricity for lighting, radio and communication in households and for refrigeration in small commerce. Nevertheless, many rural household spend a considerable share of their income for modern energy in the form of kerosene or batteries (€ 4–5 per month). Lack of access to electricity restricts the local population’s opportunities for income-generating activities.
The energy sector is key to the country's economy already today, since energy exports make up a large share of total foreign exchange earnings. Moreover, the availability of cheap electricity is one of the main reasons for the significant foreign direct investment in energy-intensive industries in Mozambique. Energy exports (hydropower, coal, gas and possibly oil) and projects to cover the growing domestic electricity demand will play an increasingly important role in the years to come. The liberalisation of the power sector initiated in 1997 allowed for third parties from the private sector to enter the power generation, transmission and distribution markets without impressive results so far (2012).

Mozambique’s Draft National Electrification Strategy has a goal to achieve universal access to electricity by 2030. It is lagging behind to achieve this goal. Thus, off-grid can complete on-grid expansion and help to achieve this goal in a cost-friendly and timely manner, especially since Mozambique has a vast landscape and the last-mile population are sparsely distributed. Thus, off-grid is also climate-friendly as it helps to replace the conventional fossil-fuel generation.

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Potentials

Mozambique has considerable energy resources with an estimated hydropower potential of 12,000 MW and also gas reserves (estimated at reaching 700 billion cubic metres) and vast coal reserves (estimated to reach 140 million TJ) with the potential of generating approx. 500 MW and 5,000 MW respectively.

Regarding solar, it has about 23 TW capacity, out of which 2.7 GW could easily be harnessed[1].

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Renewable Energy Potential

Resource Availability Total Potential
Wind Along the cost Niassa (Average wind speed 6 m/s)
Solar 4.5-7 kWh/m2/day 2.7 GW
Hydro 12 GW (1 GW in small installations up to 10 MW) 12 000 MW
Biomass 100's of MW (Big biogas potential)

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Demand and Supply

Peak electricity demand was 530 MW in 2010 (without Mozal) with an energy consumption of approximately 3,032 GWh. The increase in power consumption has been significant during recent years with average annual increases in the order of 6 to 8 % over the last 10 years. These figures reflect supply to domestic, commercial and industrial consumers in the national power network supplied by Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM) the national power company. Approx. 136 MW (61 MW from hydro and 75 MW from diesel and gas) are supplied by EdM's own generation, mainly by ageing plants requiring refurbishment. The remaining demand is supplied through a purchase agreement with Cahora Bassa, a hydropower plant at the Zambezi River with an installed capacity of 2,075 MW. The number of consumers has grown with more than 10% annually since the year 2000 and was about 850,000 in 2010 (2,240 Medium & High Voltage clients). At present still only 16% of the population has access to electricity. Power demand forecasts indicate that with an average projected growth rate of 6% p.a. Mozambique will reach a maximum demand of 1,350 MW by 2030 and a projected consumption of 8,300 GWh. From 2009 until 2013, it is foreseen that demand reach 560 MW by 2013. For meeting the country‘s electricity needs in a timely manner, it is imperative given that the Cahora Bassa‘s reserve for domestic market requirements of 400 MW is almost exhausted. Therefore it is important that the HEP sites Mavuzi, Chicamba, Corumana are rehabilitated and that the technical and economical feasb. HEP sites Tsate, Mueneze, Alto Malema, Massingir and Mavuzi II and III are errected and the retrofit of the MTC Maputo Gas Turbine. These investments would sum to approx. 415 MW ICap and approx. 300 MW additional firm power. Several large scale IPPs, mainly for export purposes, are planned (totalling ca. 3 to 5 GW).


Biomass coming from an estimated 30.6 million hectares of forest lands for wood fuel and charcoal represents about 80% of the total energy consumed by the households. This value is even bigger in remote rural areas. Every year it is estimated that 16,000,000 m3 of forestry resources are burnt to meet rural energy requirements.


The present consumption of oil products is in the order of 600 million litres per year, transport being the lead user followed by agriculture. The turbulence in international oil markets since 2004 resulting in abrupt fluctuations of oil prices have become a source of social unrest. The reduction of the Mozambican energy bill, especially for imports of liquid fossil fuels, which in 2006 amounted to 14% of national imports, deserves special attention. Today both liquid pe-troleum gas (LPG) and kerosene have only a small impact in terms of the national energy ba-lance. LPG is mainly used in the urban centres of Maputo, Matola, Beira and Nampula. How-ever due to bottlenecks in supplies the national consumption does not exceed 14,000 tons.


Mozambique´s considerable energy resources enable the country to meet its internal demand and still export energy to Southern and East African countries. The availability of energy resources including hydro, natural gas and coal, plus the geographical positioning of the country – acting both as route to the countries inland well served by harbours, railway and pipeline systems, and as an interface between the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Eastern African Community (EAC) gives Mozambique a privileged, strategic position and role in the regional energy sector.


However despite the countries significant electric power potential there should be no rapid shift expected from biomass to electricity use because Mozambique is a vast country with the majority of the population living in rural communities dispersed throughout the provinces. Energy solutions must take into consideration this reality and adapt to it by combining an intensification of electrification in those areas served by the national electricity grid and the adoption of modern technological solutions and energy services in particular for remote areas, using sustainable biomass, solar and hydropower resources.

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Noteworthy Trends

Despite its large renewable energy resources, the country energy sector focus is on large hydro projects in the Zambezi Basin (i.e. Mphanda Nkuwa) to produce power for export to South Africa and for industry. Mozambique relies heavily on the export of commercial electricity to South Africa from the Cahora Bassa dam on the Zambezi River to generate foreign exchange income.

The two immediate projects are the 850 MW (nominal) expansion of the Cahora Bassa dam and the controversial Mphanda Nkuwa dam (2500 MW). See table below.


Project Name Type of Project

Size

Comments

CB North Bank Hydropower expansion

850 to 1300 additional MW

Detailed feasibility study is underway

Mphanda Nkuwa Hydropower

2500 MW

Env. + Soc. Impact Study underway

Massingir Hydropower

40 MW

EDM managed

Lurio Hydropower

120 MW


Majawa Hydropower

25 MW


Malema Hydropower

60 MW


Moatize Coal fired power plant

1500 MW

IES is the developer

Temane Combined Cycle natural gas fired power plant

300-400 MW

On the SASOL gaspipeline. 2010


As a result of March 2009 Government policy, the biofuels sector is receiving hundreds of millions of dollars in investment (sugar – ethanol, jatropha --- biodiesel).However, production has yet to commence and there is considerable controversy about transparency and food vs. energy.

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Market Situation

The market situation for photovoltaic (PV) and hydro power technologies and services is still in early stages.The off-grid market is identified to be around 4 million households, creating an opportunity for not only electrification but also boosting the local economy. UNEP has estimated that for every 10,000 off-grid houses connection, 30 jobs are created by renewable energy. The jobs could be created in the local manufacturing, distribution and maintenance. Apart from electrification, off-grid can also support other productive uses of electricity especially in the agriculture sector (solar pumping)[2].

The private sector is underdeveloped in Mozambique and until 2018, only 25 business were either active or were inclined to enter the market in near future. These businesses are mostly dependent on public tender and donor initiatives. However, the informal off-grid solar products market is thriving in Mozambique with products imported from South Africa, Tanzania or China. This could be because Mozambique has a higher import duty and VAT on PV and ICS as compared to other sub-Saharan countries such as Ethiopia, Ghana or Tanzania. These products in the informal market enter via informal channels and do not pay the import taxes[3].

The Improved Cookstove (ICS) market in Mozambique is small and is categorized by mostly donor/NGOs initiatives. In 2016, it was estimated that 70,000 ICS were distributed via NGOs interventions, including both locally made, hybrid as well as imported ICS[1].

For green mini grid, the tendering process is similar as big energy projects and this increases the complexity for obtaining a concession contact, especially for local businesses. However, the government is promoting mini-grids for public spaces such as health centres, schools and water pumping for community and agricultural purposes[1].

In the case of micro and pico hydro there are no readily available products available in the country which makes prices prohibitive for communities and individual households. However there is a good potential for local manufacture of water wheels and pico turbines, although the market is still very limited and therefore local services tend to be rather expensive.

In its first phase, ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE started pioneer activities in the local manufacture of water wheels for upgrading traditional maize mills and the manufacture of pico turbines with most promising results. Therefore it is envisaged to upscale micro/pico hydro power activities sustainably on a local level with an appropriate and cost effective approach for technical capacity building, technology transfer and market development.

The market for PV is divided into steadily growing local market spots and mainly capital based PV providers working with directly imported equipment for government projects funded by donors. The local market is efficient and reliable but informal, with low quality products of Chinese origin coming mainly from RSA. Market actors are lacking technical knowledge. In parallel to the dissemination of products from the local market ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE has started designing an energy efficient compact small solar home system (SSHS) with a local enterprise. In the case of PV for household lighting, technical capacity building, technology transfer and market development is envisaged within a Public Private Partnership (PPP) measure with German enterprises and higher quality products.


In addition to the overarching need for developing the countries extensive energy resources (hydro, coal, gas and biomass) for both domestic and regional consumption the main challenges in the power sector in Mozambique are:

  • Ensuring that affordable electricity supply is available to meet the rapidly growing domestic demand. In the near term, this will involve the continued extension of the grid with a focus on loss reduction and intensification of the grid,
  • Reaching the vast areas of the country beyond the national grid managed by EdM. The GoM is committed to supporting decentralized electrification of social infrastructure (rural schools, clinics and administrative offices) and to increase access to modern energy services to villages and rural enterprises through PV systems, micro/pico-hydro schemes, modern biomass energy, and other Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs),
  • Ensuring that power shortages do not become a constraint on economic growth. Several GoM proposed generation and transmission ―mega-projects‖ will address sufficiency and security of supply for the medium to long-term,
  • Institutional strengthening and capacity development of the main sector public institutions (MoE, EdM, FUNAE and CNELEC) but also of the private sector composed of NGOs, MFIs, and local enterprises working with RETs, in order to improve their respective performance, governance and effectiveness.


Cumulative capacity, by technology:

  1. Wind: NONE
  2. Solar PV: NO GRID CONNECT. SMALL OFF GRID MARKET.
  3. CSP: NONE
  4. Solar thermal:Very small household and tourism market
  5. Geothermal: NONE.
  6. Bioenergy (heat and/or power): 5-10 MW in 5 sugar refineries (Self consumed)
  7. Hydropower: 2,075 MW Cahora Bassa dam dominates the energy sector.This is owned by Hidroelectrica de Cahora Bassa (HCB), whose assets are 85% owned by the Mozambique government.
    160 MW, mostly of hydropower, is managed by Electricidade de Mozambique (EDM)

Biofuels production data – for both ethanol and biodiesel.
A National Policy and Strategy for Biofuels was approved in February 2009 which focuses on ethanol from sugarcane and sorghum and coconut and jatropha for biodiesel. This policy has led to hundreds of millions of dollars in investment plans in ethanol and biodiesel in Mozambique. In October 2007 ethanol plant in Mozambique received US$510 million in support from the UK. However, the actual on-the-ground activity is unclear and production has yet to commence. Biofuels are not readily available in the country and export details are also not available[4].

  1. Marine energy (specify technology) NONE

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Key Problems of the Energy Sector

Power Africa states that Mozambique's energy sector's most challenging issues are as follows[5]:

  • Public Finances/Macro-economic issues
  • Lacking credible utility and cost-reflective tariff
  • Lack of strong, transparent regulator


Policy Framework, Laws and Regulations

The legal framework relating to energy in Mozambique is composed of a variety of policies, strategies and regulations, the most important ones being the energy strategy (2009), the policy for the development of new and renewable energies 2011-2025 (2011), the strategy of the conversation and sustainable use of biomass energy (2013), the strategy of biofuels (2009), the regulation of biofuels and their mixture and the regulation that established the feed in tariff for new and renewable energies - REFIT (2014).


Within PARPA (PRSP), the programme for reduction and alleviation of absolute poverty, the GoM has been granting high priority to efforts to increase access to electricity for the population. Within the PARPA II the GoM has affirmed the critical role of the energy sector in reducing poverty. Adequate and equitable access to energy resources and services such as the provision of energy services to households, rural schools, administrative offices, and hospitals in rural areas is defined as a key driver of growth and poverty alleviation. The energy-related goals set in the PARPA are being operationalised by GoM through a number of strategies, investments and studies that have been prepared or are under way. The PARPA II (§507ff) outlines a programme for the energy sector, which entails: Electrification, Liquid Fuels, Renewable Energy, and Intersectoral Collaboration.


The Energy Policy approved March 3rd 1998 by the Council of Ministers under Resolution 5/98 established with the following objectives among others relevant for ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE.:

  • Guarantee reliable supply of energy, at lowest possible cost, in order to meet present demand and future levels based on economic development trajectories,
  • Increase the energy options available for household consumption,
  • Secure better efficiency in energy utilization,
  • Promote the development of environmentally friendly conversion technologies, namely hydro, solar, wind and biomass,
  • Promote competitive, dynamic and more efficient entrepreneurs.


In March 2009 the Policy for Renewables was defined with the following objectives among others with relevance for ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE:

  • Increase the access to modern energy services of high quality and accessible prices,
  • Reduce poverty and contribute to the Millennium Development Goals,
  • Contribute to the generation of local and national income and employment.


The revised Energy Strategy aims to align Mozambique with best international practices for efficient energy utilization, raising awareness amongst its citizens about good environmental practices, diversifying the energy supply matrix, giving particular emphasis to new and renewable sources of energy and to the opportunities contained within the Clean Development Mechanisms, under the Kyoto Protocol. It should ensure energy availability to sustainably meet the requirements of national socio-economic development by undertaking the necessary actions to increase access to diversified energy sources in a sustainable way, contributing to the welfare of the population and the country‘s socio-economic development. The strategy recognizes accelerating electrification efforts, giving priority to rural areas, through the expansion and intensification of the national grid, the utilization of Renewables, the optimization of low cost solutions, and the introduction of measures which will ensure productive and efficient use of electricity (as low consumption/high efficiency light bulbs). The GoM aims to support regional integration and reflects in its national legal framework the best practices in environmental protection. Mozambique has its own Oil Law and Electricity Law. A Regulation defines the licensing of electricity installations, another Regulation establishes the competencies and procedures regarding concessioning of production, transmission, distribution and marketing of electricity, as well as its importation and exportation. Other regulations establish the norms for the national grid, the instructions for CNELEC and its regulatory functions, and the Technical Unit for Implementation of Hydroelectric Projects (UTIP). Based on the new Energy Sector Strategy with its specific subsectors of Electrical Energy and New and Renewable Energies, as well as the Energy Strategic Plan 2009 – 2013, the GoM has prepared a comprehensive 5-year plan for energy development and access. In the current government’s 5-year plan (2015-2019) increased access to electricity appears as one of the strategic objectives. Mozambique’s target is to provide electricity access to 50% of the population by 2023. Rural electrification is planned to be increased using both the national grid and household solar systems. A special focus lies on the electrification of health centres through PV solutions. Also the construction of 12 mini hydropower plants is foreseen. The 5-year plan does not make any mention of biomass related energy issues.


ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE is fully aligned and consistent with this plan, with PARPA and with the new sector strategy. ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE will specifically support: (i) grid densification by scaling-up electricity connections in peri-urban areas; (ii) promote market development for renewable energy technologies for household lighting and social infrastructure; and (iii) technology transfer and capacity building for the main implementing partners mainly, but not exclusively of the private sector.

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Institutional Set-up in the Energy Sector

The public sector is represented by:

  • The Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy (MIREME) FUNAE was created in 2015 after elections by merging the former Ministry of Energy with the Ministry of Mineral Resources. The Ministry consists of four directorates: Mines and Geology, Hydrocarbons and Fuels, Energy and Planning and Cooperation. In the energy sector MIREME is responsible for national energy planning and policy formulation and for overseeing the operation and development of the energy sector. MIREME is represented in the provinces through the Provincial Directorates of Mineral Resources and Energy (DIPREME).
  • Electricidade de Moçambique (EdM), is a vertically-integrated, government-owned electric utility responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the national grid. EdM buys most of its power supply (apr. 400 MW) from Hidroelectrica de Cahora Bassa (HCB), owner and operator of the Cahora Bassa hydro power plant on the Zambezi (2,075 MW). The GoM owns 82 percent of HCB which operates as an Independent Power Producer (IPP) The bulk of the electricity generated at HCB is exported to South Africa, with a small amount to Zimbabwe. EdM sells any excess electricity on the Southern Africa Short Term Energy Market. The Mozambique transmission grid is currently interconnected with South Africa, Zimbabwe and Swaziland.
  • The Fundo Nacional de Energia (FUNAE) was established in 1997 as a public institution to promote rural electrification and rural access to modern energy services, in a sustainable manner, and as a contributor to economic and social development in the country. Since its establishment FUNAE has implemented numerous projects using renewable energy technologies to electrify schools, clinics and communities.
  • The Conselho Nacional de Electricidade (CNELEC) was re-established as an independent advisory regulatory body for the electricity sector in early 2008 with support from the World Bank Energy Reform and Access Project (ERAP). CNELEC was instructed to give its highest priority to an evaluation of EDM‘s performance under its Performance Contract with the GoM. This Performance Contract covers the years 2007 to 2009 and sets out the goals and indicators to be met annually by EDM and GoM. CNELEC was also instructed to conduct a review of the current methodology used by EDM in setting tariffs. In performing the review of EDM‘s performance, the directive instructed CNELEC to conduct its review in an open and transparent manner with public hearings in several locations throughout the country.
  • The private sector is represented by various licensed private enterprises which participate in the grid extension and household connection works of EdM and private enterprises for the provision and installation of PV products, often situated exclusively in the capital Maputo. A microfinance sector with banks and NGOs is active throughout the country but often exclusively restricted to the province and/or district capitals. The NGO sector is characterized by relatively weak institutional profiles and technical specialisation, as well as weak implementation structures and technical competences.

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Major Donor Activities

Currently, different international actors such as the SNV, GIZ, World Bank, JICA, USAID are active in the energy supporting different policies as well as RE projects[6]

The World Bank is one of the main donors in the energy sector. Since July 2007, it has served as co-chair with the GoM on the ―Energy Sector Working Group‖ that was established within the framework of the Paris Declaration. The Bank is in preparation of the second phase of the Energy Reform and Access Project (ERAP), which will now be called Energy Development and Access Programme (EDAP). The proposed project will help establish the necessary operational framework for increasing electricity access to un-electrified areas nationally in a sustainable and programmatic manner, aiming at mainstreaming a sector-wide approach (SWAp) by establishing a comprehensive donor partnership framework for coordinated and sustained financing of investment and capacity strengthening aligned with national priorities and procedures (WB, ADB, ADF, OFID, BADEA, IsDB, Kuweit Fund) With Norway, the World Bank is also co-financing the Mozambique- Malawi Transmission Interconnection Project (cancelled medio 2010) and the Mozambique Regional Transmission Backbone Project. Sweden is engaged together with co-financing of Norway and Denmark in rural electrification (grid extension and household connections) in Sofala, Manica, Tete and Niassa Provinces. Norway is financing rural electrification in Cabo Delgado and grid extension in Gurue - Cuamba – Lichinga and Namacurra – Pebane. Technical assistance (TA) and capacity development for EdM in mega project development for power generation, as well as for the MoE are delivered by Norway and Sweden. Sweden also is embarking on the rehabilitation of the hydro power stations in Mavuzi and Chicamba. The European Commission (EC) is financing rural electrification in Cabo Delgado, Tete and Sofala with EdM, PV electrification in rural areas with FUNAE and capacity building in energy planning and management for the MoE. DFID is giving TA on Biofuels to the National Directorate of Renewable Energy of the MoE.

In April 2019, World Bank approved a USD 82 million energy grant to Mozambique to increase access to electricity in the peri-urban and rural areas, expand the existing grid network and promote the use of off-grid energy solutions in areas where grid expansion is not feasible.This project is also supported by a USD 55 million Multi-Donor Trust Fund, also admisitered by the World bank. The project will focus on the northern provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Cabo Delgado, and Zambezia and Sofala in the centre of the country. It also aims to contribute towards the Mozambique government’s Energy for All project.


Belgium had an energy program with the Ministry of Energy trough FUNAE, from September 2010 up to December 2016. The program focused on off-grid energy systems, based on renewable energy resources (hydraulic, solar and wind), in remote rural areas where no grid connection is foreseen within the next five years. The program was financed, on grant basis, electrification systems for community infrastructures such as administrative buildings, schools, health centres, water pumping devices and public lighting. In 2017 a new program has to start, worth a grant of 12 million euro, with the same partner FUNAE, including renewable energy installations for private use (household, shops or small enterprises) to be stimulated by subsidies (investment funds) and soft loans through micro-finance systems. In order to increase the sustainability of the renewable energy installations, the program will also provide a computerized asset management system and technical assistance focused on capacity building through training initiatives, research and development. 

Considering the large area of the country and the dispersed population in the rural areas, a geographical concentration and/or clustering of the activities will be essential for the follow-up and the cost-effectiveness of the activities. As the provinces of Manica, Tete, Zambezia and Nyassa have a high potential for small hydropower, the possibility of concentrating activities in these four provinces will be investigated.

ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE coordinates its activities with the EDAP and Belgian Programs in close cooperation with FUNAE and government structures both central and in the province, as there will be several common intervention areas such as grid densification, PV electrification of social infrastructure and market development of PV systems for households. The ENDEV MOZAMBIQUE activities are in line with the capacity development needs of the implementing partners of the private sector, NGOs, communities and local entrepreneurs, which will receive business development services and will be trained on the job during the implementation of the activities in the PV and hydro power components.


SNV's BRILHO program is a five year programme running from 2019-2024 and aims to support the Mozambique's off grid energy makert and support technologies such as Improved Cooking Solutions, Solar Home Systems and Green Mini-grids. It expects to support 8 GMGs with total funding of GBP 2.2 million[7].

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Further Information


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 BERF (2016). Business environment constraints in Mozambique’s Renewable Energy Sector: Solar PV Systems and Improved Cook Stoves, Business Environment Reform Facility, UK Department of International Development. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76b459ed915d3547d50a07/Final_BERF-Mozambique-Renewable-Energy-8th-Dec2016.pdf
  2. Global Green Growth Institute (2017). Country Brief: Mozambique. Off-grid solar power in Mozambique: Opportunities for universal energy access and barriers to private sector participation.fckLRfckLRhttps://sun-connect-news.org/fileadmin/DATEIEN/Dateien/New/Country-Brief-Mozambique.pdf
  3. Lighting Global (2018):Off-Grid Solar Market Assessment in MozambiquefckLRfckLR https://www.lightingafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Mozambique_off-grid-assessment.pdf
  4. The biofuels sector, and especially the biodiesel sector, has attracted considerable investment. Hundreds of millions of dollars of investment has been made. Much of this has been in the sugar sector which is growing rapidly. At least 7 biodiesel/jatropha plantations have been set up with poor -- and controversial – results. (see Justica Ambiental!/Uniao Nacional de Camponeses, Jatropha: A Socio-economic pitfall for Mozambique. August 2009. http://ictsd.org/i/news/biores/45169/
  5. Power Africa. (2018). Mozambique Factsheet. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1860/Mozambique_-_November_2018_Country_Fact_Sheet.pdf
  6. Affrica-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Program: Solar Energy Investment Opportunities in MozambiquefckLRfckLR
  7. 5 years on from the launch of Green Mini-Grids Africa – what’s been achieved, and what have we learned? May 2020 https://minigrids.org/5-years-on-from-the-launch-of-green-mini-grids-africa-whats-been-achieved-and-what-have-we-learned/

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